Technology is changing the world as well as itself. Today, we use computer programming in almost everything: households, agriculture, health, entertainment, communication, banking, etc. Programming languages or computer languages (no matter the name you prefer) are expanding more and more, due to the fact that we’re “exploring” new products.
Programming languages in general, with different or similar purposes, are competing among each other in the tech world. This makes us wonder which one will be kicked out during the race and who will move forward and keep on growing? Why are Rust, Swift or Go more popular than others? Are there new programming languages that will appear and replace them soon?
Let’s have a look at the list below of a few of the new programming languages that appeared in the past 6 years that you might find interesting. This isn't about compiling the best programming languages, but rather introducing a few that at the moment really do grab my attention and that we here at Apiumhub actually really love.
7 New Programming Languages
2015 – Rust Programming Language (by Mozilla)
- It first appeared in 2010, but the first stable Rust 1.0 was released in May 2015 and the newest version 1.10 was released in December 2016.
- This programming language is used for writing reliable and fast software and is pretty fun to use while doing it.
- Rust is well known as a new systems programming language focusing on safety, speed, and concurrency. In fact, reviews say that it is a programming language that runs crazy fast, that prevents segfaults, and that guarantees thread safety.
- Rust has very similar syntax with C++, complete with curly brackets and keyword-based control flow.
- It doesn’t support all C and C++ keywords and uses its own keywords which are not found in C or C++, such as match and switch.
- Rust is implemented in Rust, implying that to build a copy of Rust, you need a copy of Rust.
- Being a very new language, the community is small but very helpful.
- Rust was the third most loved in the list of programming languages in 2015 and jumped to the 1st place for “most loved programming language of 2016” in the Stack Overflow annual survey.
For many developers, Rust has become one of their favorite programming languages due to the fact that it has “powerful abstractions, no null, no segfaults, no leaks, yet C-like performance and control over memory” or because it is “more approachable, safer and often more productive”.
Day by day, Rust’s popularity is increasing but as it’s very young it makes us wonder whether it will still be that popular in the upcoming years.
2014 – The Hack Programming Language (by Facebook)
- The Hack is an open source programming language for HHVM that appeared in 2014.
- Hack lets programmers build complex websites and other software very fast, always ensuring that the software code is well organized and almost free of flaws.
- Its type system is called gradual typing, which enables programmers to use both dynamic and static typing.
- Hack has deep roots in PHP, in fact, it was designed to work with PHP.
2014 – Swift Programming Language (by Apple)
- Swift first appeared in June 2014 and Swift 1.1 was released in October 2014, with the latest version coming out in May 2016.
- Swift won the first place for most loved programming language in the Stack Overflow Developer Survey in 2014 and second place in 2016.
- Swift gained a top 20 spot in The RedMonk Programming Languages Rankings in June 2015.
- Swift was described as “drawing ideas from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU,” which means it combines many of the benefits of modern dynamic languages (for iOS, OS X, watchOS, and Linux) with the benefits of a strong type system, in a language that produces fast code.
- Swift feels similar to Objective-C but many developers said that Swift is cleaner and more readable than Objective-C.
- Swift also adopts safe programming patterns and adds modern features to make programming easier and more flexible.
Swift did not only become famous because it comes from Apple, it also has huge advantages compared to other programming languages. This is mainly due to its dramatically cleaner syntax and its less low-level juggling of pointers. In 2014, Swift was forecasted as one of the most important programming languages that would define the future of coding.
2012 – Elixir (by José Valim)
- Elixir first appeared in 2012 and is a language that runs on the Erlang VM. It’s a functional language designed for productivity, scalability, and maintainability.
- In fact, it is considered as a friendly functional programming that is very scalable. It has great development tools used for building, managing dependencies, testing, and deployment.
- Elixir is mainly used to build web applications.
- Today, huge players like Pinterest and Moz trust and use Elixir.
In the last 10 years, Ruby and Python have been popular choices for the web. I believe that it is very probable that in a few years, Elixir will be the most popular language for new web projects.
2012 – Julia (by Jeff Bezanson & Stefan Karpinski)
- Julia first appeared in 2012 and is defined as a high-level and high-performance programming language.
- It is mostly used for technical computing, with syntax that is familiar to users of other technical computing environments.
- Its compiler is great and fast, has distributed parallel execution, numerical accuracy, and an extensive mathematical function library.
- Julia is largely used in finance services, asset management firms, insurance companies, and investment banking firms, and helps to avoid rewriting the code as in Java or C++.
- Julia can produce native code on different platforms and it is fast. Very simple to work with for people who don’t have much experience programming.
Julia is still quite young, but it is developing very quickly and in 2012 was highlighted as one of the programming languages that was destined to make a major impact in the future.
2011 – Dart Programming Language (by Google)
- Dart was revealed in 2011 and was designed to make it easy to write development tools that were well-suited to modern app development capable of high-performance implementations.
- It is used to build web, server, and mobile applications and for IoT devices.
- Dart is a pretty fast language, and it has wonderful syntax.
- It adds nice stuff as user-defined operator methods with lightweight, readable code and lightweight syntax for anonymous functions which is used a lot in web programming.
- Only true is true
- No undefined, only null
- No automatic type coercion with ==, +, and other operators
- Dart natively supports libraries.
“Dart code could also soon be used for microprocessors (like Raspberry Pi) and microcontrollers (like Arduino),” said Filip Hracek, a Dart Developer at Google. It was predicted that the future of Dart would be a language designed to be used for advanced Web applications and an alternative to server-side platforms for real-time communications.
2009 – Go Programming Language (by Google)
- Go was released in 2009 and since then has enjoyed explosive growth in popularity. It took almost four years to work its way into the Top 20 rankings by RedMonk. See Programming Language Rankings: June 2015.
- Go or Golang is an open source programming language that makes it easy to build simple, reliable, and efficient software. It is considered as a great language that is improving fast and that showed it can be used for all project sizes.
- According to some, it is faster and easier to learn and master.
- The creator of Go said that it was “an attempt to combine the ease of programming of an interpreted, dynamically typed language with the efficiency and safety of a statically typed, compiled language.”
- Go is also popular because of Docker. Why? Docker is a container startup which has revolutionized how to build, ship, and run applications and is all written in Go language.
Go language is growing a lot, especially because it is neatly designed and is used by Google, which holds a major influence in the computer science field. Together with Rust and Swift, Go is considered as a language that will have an important role in the future of coding.