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A Contrarian Viewpoint on Container Networking

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A Contrarian Viewpoint on Container Networking

Despite containers' benefits, networking remains a challenge. Here are the problems faced when trying to get containers to talk to each other.

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With DockerCon in Austin not too far behind us, I’m reminded of last year’s DockerCon Seattle and watching some announcements with utter fascination or utter disappointment. Let’s see if we can’t turn the disappointments into positives.

The first disappointment has a recent happy ending. It was a broadly shared observation in Seattle, the media, and discussion forums: Docker was overstepping when they bundled in Swarm with the core of Docker Engine in 1.12. This led to the trial balloon that forking Docker was a potential solution towards a lighter-weight Docker that could serve in Mesos and Kubernetes too. Last September, I covered this in my blog sparing little disdain over the idea of forking Docker Engine simply because it had become too monolithic. There are other good options, and I’m happy to say Docker heeded the community’s outcry and cleanly broke out a component of Docker Engine called containerd, which is the crux of the container runtime. This gets back to the elegant Unix-tool inspired modularization and composition, and I’m glad to see containerd and rkt have recently been accepted into the CNCF. Crisis #1 averted.

My next disappointment was not so widely shared, and in fact, it is still a problem at large today: the viewpoint on container networking. Let’s have a look.

Is Container Networking Special?

When it comes to containers, there’s a massive outpour of innovation from both mature vendors and startups alike. When it comes to SDN there’s no exception.

Many of these solutions you can discount because, as I said in my last blog, as shiny and interesting as they may be on the surface or in the community, their simplicity is quickly discovered as a double-edged sword. In other words, they may be easy to get going and wrap your head around, but they have serious performance issues, security issues, scale issues, and “experiential cliffs” to borrow a turn of phrase from the Kubernetes founders when they commented on the sometimes over-simplicity of many PaaS systems (in other words, they hit a use case where the system just can’t do that experience/feature that is needed).

Back to DockerCon Seattle

Let’s put aside the SDN startups that to various extents suffer from the over-simplicity or lack of soak and development time, leading to the issues above. The thing that really grinds my gears about last year’s DockerCon can be boiled down to Docker, a powerful voice in the community, really advocating that container networking was making serious strides, when at the same time they were using the most primitive of statements (and solution) possible, introducing “Multi-host networking”

You may recall my social post/poke at the photo of this slide with my sarcastic caption.

Of course, Docker was talking about their overlay-based approach to networking that was launched as the (then) new default mode to enable networking in Swarm clusters. The problem is that most of the community are not SDN experts, and so they really don’t know any better than to believe this is an aww!-worthy contribution. A few of us that have long-worked in networking were less impressed.

Because of the attention that container projects get, Docker being the biggest, these kinds of SDN solutions are still seen today by the wider community of users as good networking solutions to go with because they easily work in the very basic CaaS use cases that most users start playing with. Just because they work for your cluster today, however, doesn’t make them a solid choice. In the future your netops team will ask about X, Y and Z (and yet more stuff down the road they won’t have the foresight to see today). Also in the future, you’ll expand and mature your use cases and start to care about non-functional traits of the network which often happens too late in production or when problems arise. I totally get it. Networking isn’t the first thing you want to think about in the cool new world of container stacks. It’s down in the weeds. It’s more exciting to contemplate the orchestration layer, and things we understand like our applications.

On top of the fact that many of these new SDN players offer primitive solutions with hidden pitfalls down the road that you won’t see until it’s too late, another less pardonable nuisance is the fact that most of them are perpetrating the myth that container networking is somehow special. I’ve heard this a lot in various verbiage over the ~7 years that SDN has arisen for cloud use cases. Just this week, I read a meetup description that started, “Containers require a new approach to networking.” Because of all the commotion in the container community with plenty of new SDN projects and companies having popped up, you may be duped into believing that, but it’s completely false. These players have a vested interest, though, in making you see it that way.

The Truth About Networking Containers

The truth is that while workload connectivity to the network may change with containers (see CNM or CNI) or with the next new thing, the network itself doesn’t need to change to address the new endpoint type. Where networks did need some work, however, is on the side of plugging into the orchestration systems. This meant that networks needed better programmability and then integration to connect-up workloads in lock-step with how the orchestration system created, deleted and moved workloads. This meant plugging into systems like vSphere, OpenStack, Kubernetes, etc. In dealing with that challenge, there were again two mindsets to making the network more programmable, automated, and agile: one camp created totally net-new solutions with entirely new protocols (OpenFlow, STT, VxLAN, VPP, etc.), and the other camp used existing protocols to build new more dynamic solutions that met the new needs.

Today the first camp solutions are falling by the wayside, and the camp that built based on existing open standards and with interoperability in mind is clearly winning

The truth about networks is that they are pervasive and they connect everything. Interoperability is key.

  1. Interoperability across networks: If you build a network that is an island of connectivity, it can’t be successful. If you build a network that requires special/new gateways, then it doesn’t connect quickly and easily to other networks using existing standards, and it won’t be successful.

  2. Interoperability across endpoints connections: If you build a network that is brilliant at connecting only containers, even if it’s interoperable with other networks, then you’ve still created an island. It’s an island of operational context because the ops team needs a different solution for connecting bare-metal nodes and virtual machines.

  3. Interoperability across infrastructure: If you have an SDN solution that requires a lot from the underlay/underlying infrastructure, it’s a failure. We’ve seen this with SDNs like NSX that required multicast in the underlay. We’ve seen this with ACI that requires Cisco switches to work. We’ve even seen great SDN solutions in the public cloud, but they’re specific to AWS or GCP. If your SDN solution isn’t portable anywhere, certainly to most places, then it’s still doomed.

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Topics:
cloud ,container networking ,docker ,sdn

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