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Builder Pattern in Javascript

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Builder Pattern in Javascript

Initialize objects with more human-readable code in a few, simple steps.

· Web Dev Zone ·
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legos-scattered-on-wooden-floor

For those who don't care about code readability: step on a lego

Suppose we go to a store and want to buy a product. Let’s say a PC. We have two options; either buy a ready-made PC of any particular brand, or we customize and assemble it.

In this scenario, we go for the second option — we will collect different parts and construct a new PC.

You may also like: Design Patterns for Beginners With Java Examples.

Now, the person who is building the PC is basically the builder who knows which part to assemble to make it the computer functional. This person in terms of design patterns is known as the Builder pattern.

A Builder pattern is generally in charge of:

  • Simplifying the construction of an object.

  • Separating the construction and representation of that object.

  • Composition.

  • Creating different representations for the constructed object.

Let’s take a simple example

Course.js

class Course { 
  constructor(name, sales, isFree = false, price, isCampain = false) { 
    this.name = name; 
    this.sales = sales || 0; 
    this.isFree = isFree; 
    this.price = price || 0; 
    this.isCampain = isCampain;  // Advertising Campaign 
  } 
  
  toString() { 
    return console.log(JSON.stringify(this)); 
  } 
}

module.exports = Course; 


main.js

const Course = require('./course');  
  
const course_1 = new Course('Design Patterns 1', 0, true, 149 , true);  
const course_2 = new Course('Design Patterns 1', 0,false, 0, false);  
  
course_1.toString();  
course_2.toString();  


Now, if anyone observes this line,

const course_1 = new Course('Design Patterns 1', 0, true, 149 , true); 


will they be able to say what 0, true, 149, true signifies? Surely not. They have to go to the Course class constructor every time to see what value each parameter is tied to.

This problem can be easily solved by the Builder pattern. If the above line is represented in builder pattern, then it will look like

const course_1 = new CourseBuilder('Design Patterns 1').makePaid(100).makeCampain().build();  


Here, one can easily tell what parameters are required for the class.

Let’s build this above example with a builder pattern

  • Create a file for the builder (e.g. Coursebuilder.js)
  • Create a constructor with the parameter required. Use default values for best practice.
  • Create a function with meaningful names for the parameters used in the constructor.
  • Return the values used within the function. (i.e return this).
  • Create a method that will return the instance of the class for which the Builder class is made. In our example, we are creating a builder pattern for Course, so we will make a function that will return instance of the Course class with the values. We'll name it build().

CourseBuilder.js

const Course = require('./course');  
  
class CourseBuilder{  
    constructor(name, sales = 0, price = 0){  
        this.name = name;  
        this.sales = sales;  
        this.price = price;  
    }  
  
    makePaid(price){  
        this.isFree = false;  
        this.price = price;  
        return this;  
    }  
  
    makeCampain(){  
        this.isCampain = true;  
        return this;  
    }  
  
    build(){  
        return new Course(this);  
    }  
}  
  
module.exports = CourseBuilder;  


Now, in the main file instead of Course class, import the Coursebuilder class. Then, create an instance of it.

Main.js

const CourseBuilder = require('./CourseBuilder');  
  
//const course_1 = new CourseBuilder('Design Patterns 1', 0, true, 149 , true);  
//const course_2 = new CourseBuilder('Design Patterns 1', 0,false, 0, false);  
const course_1 = new CourseBuilder('Design Patterns 1').makePaid(100).makeCampain().build();  
const course_2 = new CourseBuilder('Design Patterns 2').build();  
  
course_1.toString();  
course_2.toString();  


Here, we can see that in the Builder pattern, the object creation code is less error-prone, as users will have a clear understanding of what parameters they are using.


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Topics:
javascript ,es6 ,design pattens

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