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Can Objects Be Friends?

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Can Objects Be Friends?

Exchanging data while maintaining encapsulation is tricky. In theory, a decorator can help, but it won't compile in Java. Still, it's a concept worth exploring.

· Java Zone ·
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Proper encapsulation leads to a complete absence of "naked data." However, the question remains: How can objects interact if they can't exchange data? Eventually, we have to expose some data in order to let other objects use it, right? Yes, that's true. However, I guess I have a solution that 

Say that this is our object:

class Temperature 
{ private int t; public String toString() 
{ return String.format("%d C", this.t); } }

It represents a temperature. The only behavior it exposes is printing the temperature in Celsius. We don't want to expose t, because that will lead to the problem. We want to keep t secret, and that's a good desire.

Now, we want to have the ability to print temperatures in Fahrenheit. The most obvious approach would be to introduce another method, toFahrenheitString(), or add a Boolean flag to the object, which will change the behavior of the method toString(), right? Either one of these solutions is better than adding a method getT(), but neither one is perfect.

What if we create this decorator:

class TempFahrenheit implements Temperature 
{ private TempCelsius origin; public String toString() 
{ return String.format( "%d F", this.origin.t * 1.8 + 32 ); } }

It should work just great:

Temperature t = new TempFahrenheit( new TempCelsius(35) );

The only problem is that it won't compile in Java, because class TempFahrenheit is not allowed to access private t in class TempCelsius. And if we make t public, everybody will be able to read it directly, and we'll have that "naked data" problem — a severe violation of encapsulation.

However, if we allow that access only to one class, everything will be fine. Something like this (won't work in Java; it's just a concept):

class TempCelsius 
{ trust TempFahrenheit; 
    // here! 
    private int t; 
    public String toString() 
    { return String.format("%d C", this.t); } }

Since this trust keyword is placed into the class that allows access, we won't have the "naked data" problem — we will always know exactly which objects possess knowledge about t. When we change something about t, we know exactly where to update the code.

What do you think?

java ,object-oriented design ,encapsulation ,data exchange

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