- Software Design and Architecture
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- Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations
Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations
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"In a post here one year ago, Catalyst CEO John Tredennick wrote about draft recommendations on cloud computing issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As John noted then, “the NIST team set out to write a primer on the cloud—types, deployment models, service models, cloud security and, ultimately, the benefits of cloud computing.”
Now, NIST has published final version of its recommendations, Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations, an 81-page guide to cloud computing. Notably, the guide endeavors to explain cloud systems in plain language. It covers how clouds are deployed, what kinds of cloud services are available, the economic considerations, the technical characteristics such as performance and reliability, typical terms of service, and security issues.
The document’s purpose is to provide recommendations for IT decision makers. NIST offers recommendations for how and when cloud computing is appropriate to use, and it explores both
"For a clear view of cloud computing, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a new publication that explains cloud systems in plain language.
The final version of Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations (Special Publication 800-146) is NIST's general guide to cloud computing. It explains cloud systems in plain language and provides recommendations for information technology decision makers, including chief information officers, information systems developers, system and network administrators, information system security officers and systems owners.
NIST defines cloud computing as a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources—for example, networks, servers, storage, applications and services—that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
Cloud computing is a rapidly developing area with many strengths and some weaknesses. Each organization has to determine which set of cloud technologies and configurations will meet its requirements. Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations explains how clouds are deployed, what kind of services are available, the economic considerations, the technical characteristics such as performance and reliability, typical terms of service, and security issues. It also offers recommendations on how and when cloud computing is an appropriate tool, and indicates the limits of current knowledge and areas for future research and analysis.
From the Introduction;
1.2 Purpose and Scope
The purpose of this document is to explain the cloud computing technology area in plain terms, and to provide recommendations for information technology decision makers.
Cloud computing is a developing area and its ultimate strengths and weakness are not yet fully researched, documented and tested. This document gives recommendations on how and when cloud computing is an appropriate tool, and indicates the limits of current knowledge and areas for future analysis.
This publication is intended to serve a diverse enterprise audience of information systems professionals including chief information officers, information systems developers, project managers, system designers, systems programmers, application programmers, system and network administrators, information system security officers, and system owners.
And the complete Executive Summary;
Cloud computing allows computer users to conveniently rent access to fully featured applications, to software development and deployment environments, and to computing infrastructure assets such as network-accessible data storage and processing.
This document reprises the NIST-established definition of cloud computing, describes cloud computing benefits and open issues, presents an overview of major classes of cloud technology, and provides guidelines and recommendations on how organizations should consider the relative opportunities and risks of cloud computing. Cloud computing has been the subject of a great deal of commentary. Attempts to describe cloud computing in general terms, however, have been problematic because cloud computing is not a single kind of system, but instead spans a spectrum of underlying technologies, configuration possibilities, service models, and deployment models. This document describes cloud systems and discusses their strengths and weaknesses.
Depending on an organization's requirements, different technologies and configurations are appropriate. To understand which part of the spectrum of cloud systems is most appropriate for a given need, an organization should consider how clouds can be deployed (deployment models), what kinds of services can be provided to customers (service models), the economic opportunities and risks of using cloud services (economic considerations), the technical characteristics of cloud services such as performance and reliability (operational characteristics), typical terms of service (service level agreements), and the security opportunities and risks (security).
Deployment Models. A cloud computing system may be deployed privately or hosted on the premises of a cloud customer, may be shared among a limited number of trusted partners, may be hosted by a third party, or may be a publically accessible service, i.e., a public cloud. Depending on the kind of cloud deployment, the cloud may have limited private computing resources, or may have access to large quantities of remotely accessed resources. The different deployment models present a number of tradeoffs in how customers can control their resources, and the scale, cost, and availability of resources.
Service Models. A cloud can provide access to software applications such as email or office productivity tools (the Software as a Service, or SaaS, service model), or can provide an environment for customers to use to build and operate their own software (the Platform as a Service, or PaaS, service model), or can provide network access to traditional computing resources such as processing power and storage (the Infrastructure as a Service, or IaaS, service model). The different service models have different strengths and are suitable for different customers and business objectives. Generally, interoperability and portability of customer workloads is more achievable in the IaaS service model because the building blocks of IaaS offerings are relatively well-defined, e.g., network protocols, CPU instruction sets, and legacy device interfaces.
Economic Considerations. In outsourced and public deployment models, cloud computing provides convenient rental of computing resources: users pay service charges while using a service but need not pay large up-front acquisition costs to build a computing infrastructure. The reduction of up-front costs reduces the risks for pilot projects and experimental efforts, thus reducing a barrier to organizational flexibility, or agility. In outsourced and public deployment models, cloud computing also can provide elasticity, that is, the ability for customers to quickly request, receive, and later release as many resources as needed. By using an elastic cloud, customers may be able to avoid excessive costs from over-provisioning, i.e., building enough capacity for peak demand and then not using the capacity in non-peak periods. Whether or not cloud computing reduces overall costs for an organization depends on a careful analysis of all the costs of operation, compliance, and security, including costs to migrate to and, if necessary, migrate from a cloud.
Operational Characteristics. Cloud computing favors applications that can be broken up into small independent parts. Cloud systems generally depend on networking and hence any limitations on networking, such as data import/export bottlenecks or service disruptions, reduce cloud utility, especially for applications that are not tolerant of disruptions.
Service Agreements, including Service Level Agreements. Organizations should understand the terms of the service agreements that define the legal relationships between cloud customers and cloud providers. An organization should understand customer responsibilities, and those of the service provider, before using a cloud service.
Inherently, the move to cloud computing is a business decision in which the business case should consider the relevant factors, some of which include readiness of existing applications for cloud deployment, transition costs and life-cycle costs, maturity of service orientation in existing infrastructure, and other factors including security and privacy requirements.
A very vendor neutral look at cloud computing and while pretty dense, it's also pretty short at 81 pages. Oh, and it's free...
Published at DZone with permission of Greg Duncan, DZone MVB. See the original article here.
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