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The Future of the Operating System - LinuxCon 2015 keynote

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Given as a keynote at LinuxCon + CloudOpen Japan 2015.

Linux has become the foundation for infrastructure everywhere as it defined application portability from the desktop to the phone and from to the data center to the cloud. As applications become increasingly distributed in nature, the Docker platform serves as the cornerstone of Linux’s evolution solidifying the dominance of Linux today and into tomorrow.


  1. The Future of the Operating System
  2. What is an Operating System ?
  3. OS Manages Processes & Resources
  4. OS Provides Portability (same app runs on different hardware)
  5. OS Provides Isolation & Reliability
  6. Operating Systems & Apps Over Time
  7. 1960s & 1970s Mainframe Era
  8. OS in 1960s • IBM OS/360 – First OS that kept track of system resources (program, memory, storage) • CTSS – Introduce scheduling • Univac Exec 8, Burrows MCP, Multics
  9. OS in 1970s • UNIX takes over mainframes – only IBM’s MVS and DEC’s OpenVMS remain • UNIX (written in C) first portable OS
  10. Apps in 1960s & 1970s • Ran on mainframe • Many apps ran on one mainframe (multi-tenancy) • Very few operators • Relatively small set of “users” • Users didn’t interact with application • CHALLENGE: Very limited reach
  11. 1980s & 1990s Microcomputer Era
  12. OS in 1980s & 1990s • UNIX dominates mainframes/servers • PC emerges & brings lots of users (expanded reach) –DOS & Windows –Mac System Software –OS2, Amiga OS & BeOS
  13. Apps in 1980s & 1990s • Application ran on a desktop • Single user • Operator became the user • CHALLENGE : Distribution – Physical media – Ship times measured in months/years
  14. 1995 - 2005 Dawn of the Internet Era
  15. OS in 1995 - 2005 • Browser becomes gateway to Internet applications • Desktop ruled by Windows • Linux emerges as the “OS of the Internet” • LAMP Stack
  16. Apps in 1995 - 2005 • Internet emerges, brings easier distribution • Applications are monoliths running on a few machines • Applications run on owned / leased hardware • Applications accessed through browser • Apps have millions of users • CHALLENGE: Scale
  17. 2005 - 2015 Distributed Applications Era
  18. Apps in 2005 - 2015 • Browser solidified as window (view) to applications • Mobile emerges… most apps merely component (view) to server based applications • Apps have 1+ billion users
  19. APPS IN 2005 - 2015 • Apps evolved to be composed of services • Distributed applications running on clusters • NoSQL & Cloud • CHALLENGE : Operations & Deployment – Many services require coordination – Need duplicate environments (dev, stage, prod)
  20. Applications Run on Clusters Static Website Web Front EndBackground Workers User DB Analytics DB Queue API Endpoint oneapplication
  21. Components Need to Work Together Static Website Web Front End Background Workers User DB Analytics DB QueueAPI Endpoint oneapplication
  22. New OS needs to schedule not only processes, but components across nodes
  23. Development VM QA Server Public Cloud Disaster Recovery Developer Laptop Server Cluster Data Center Distributed Applications Challenge Static Website Web Front EndBackground Workers User DB Analytics DB Queue API Endpoint Development Test & QA Production Scale Out oneapplication
  24. OS no longer providing application portability
  25. OS needs to evolve to meet Application
  26. Linux provides foundation for Solution.. but needs another layer
  27. Docker + Linux
  28. Modern Application Portability
  29. The Docker Mission Build Ship Run Anywhere Any Application Local Cloud Data Center
  30. Docker Engine Creates, Ships & Runs containers • Deployable anywhere • Communicates with Docker Hub BUILD Package app and dependencies together SHIP Deploy locally, in the cloud or in the data center RUN Run containers with monitoring and stats anywhere

  31. Application Portability Run Docker containers unchanged in any environment, on any infrastructure Build Ship Run
  32. Schedule Components & Resources
  33. Orchestration Compose • Configure multi-container applications with a simple file Machine • Auto-provision hosts and install Engine with a single command • Drivers to integrate with 12 infrastructure partners Swarm • Running and scheduling clusters of containers
  34. Isolation & Reliability
  35. Isolation Container provides true isolation of components Build Ship Run
  36. Service Reliability Faithful representation of app with encompassed dependencies Build Ship Run
  37. Development VM QA Server Public Cloud Disaster Recovery Developer Laptop Server Cluster Data Center Distributed Applications Solution Development Test & QA Production Scale Out Static Website Web Front End BackgroundWorkers Analytics DB Queue APIEndpoint User DB oneapplication
  38. The Docker Un-Enabled Organization
  39. Case Study: Gilt Groupe Before Docker • 7 Monolithic apps • Wasted time implementing monolithic PaaS •Dev-to-Prod: weeks
  40. Case Study: ING Before Docker •9+ months from commit to deploy • Poorly rated applications •Redundant processes and apps
  41. The Docker Enabled Organization
  42. Case Study: Gilt Groupe After Docker • 400+ microservices • 100+ innovations a day • Easily burst capacity at peak times •Dev-to-Prod: minutes
  43. Case Study: ING After Docker •15 minutes from commit to live • 1,500 deployments per week
  44. The Future…
  45. … is written by people willing to disrupt the established
  46. UBER
  47. Distributed Apps are the Future
  48. Linux + Docker is the Future of Operating Systems

The Cloud Zone is brought to you in partnership with Internap. Read Bare-Metal Cloud 101 to learn about bare-metal cloud and how it has emerged as a way to complement virtualized services.

open source,operating systems,containers,lxc,containerication,linux

Published at DZone with permission of Steve Francia, DZone MVB. See the original article here.

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