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java,tools & methods

Getting started with Thucydides – using the Thucydides Maven Archetypes

Thucydides is an open source library that lets you use WebDriver/Selenium 2 to write better acceptance tests. . The easiest way to start a new Thucydides project is to use the Maven archetype. Two archetypes are currently available: one for using Thucydides with JUnit, and another if you also want to write your acceptance tests (or a part of them) using easyb.

From the command line, you can run mvn archetype:generate and then select the net.thucydides.thucydides-easyb-archetype archetype from the proposed list of archetypes. Or you can use your favorite IDE to generate a new Maven project using an archetype.

$ mvn archetype:generate
Define value for property 'groupId': : com.mycompany
Define value for property 'artifactId': : webtests
Define value for property 'version':  1.0-SNAPSHOT: :
Define value for property 'package':  com.mycompany: :
Confirm properties configuration:
groupId: com.mycompany
artifactId: webtests
version: 1.0-SNAPSHOT
package: com.mycompany
 Y: :
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 2:33.290s
[INFO] Finished at: Fri Oct 28 07:20:41 NZDT 2011
[INFO] Final Memory: 7M/81M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

This will create a simple Thucydides project, complete with a Page Object, a Step library and two test cases, one using JUnit, and one using easyb. Before going any further, take the project for a spin: go into the generated project directory, run the tests and generate the reports:

$ mvn test thucydides:aggregate

This should run some web tests and generate a report in target/site/thucydides directory (open the index.html file). You should see a report like this one:

If you drill down into the individual test reports, you will see an illustrated narrative for each test:

Now for the details. the project directory structure is shown here:

+ src
   + main
      + java
         + com.mycompany.pages
            - HomePage.java   

   + test
      + java
         + com.mycompany.pages
            + requirements
               - Application.java
            + steps
               - EndUserSteps.java
            - SearchByKeywordStoryTest.java 

      + stories
         + com.wakaleo.webtests.wikipedia
            - SearchingForCats.story

This project is designed to provide a starting point for your Thucydides acceptance tests, and to illustrate some of the basic features. The tests come in two flavors: easyb and JUnit. easyb is a Groovy-based BDD (Behaviour Driven Development) library which works well for this kind of test. The sample easyb story can be found in the SearchingForCats.story file, and looks something like this:

	using "thucydides"

	thucydides.uses_default_base_url "http://www.wikipedia.com"
	thucydides.uses_steps_from EndUserSteps
	thucydides.tests_story SearchBySingleKeyword

	scenario "Searching for cats", {
	    given "the user is on the home page", {
	    when "the end user searches for 'cats'", {
	    then "they should see the corresponding article", {
	       end_user.should_see_article_with_title("Cat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia")

A cursory glance at this story will show that it relates a user searching for entries on cats on Wikipedia. However only the “what” is expressed at this level – the details are hidden inside the test steps and, further down, inside page objects.

If you prefer pure Java tests, the JUnit equivalent can be found in the SearchByKeywordTest.java file:

public class SearchByKeywordStoryTest {

    @Managed(uniqueSession = true)
    public WebDriver webdriver;

    @ManagedPages(defaultUrl = "http://www.wikipedia.com")
    public Pages pages;

    public EndUserSteps endUser;

    public void searching_by_keyword_cat_should_display_article_about_cats() {
        endUser.should_see_article_with_title("Cat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia");



As you can see, this is a little more technical but still very high level.

The step libraries contain the implementation of each of the steps used in the high-level tests. For complex tests, these steps can in turn call other steps. The step library used in this example can be found in EndUserSteps.java:

public class EndUserSteps extends ScenarioSteps {

	public EndUserSteps(Pages pages) {

    public void searches_by_keyword(String keyword) {

	public void enters(String keyword) {

    public void performs_search() {

    private HomePage onHomePage() {
        return getPages().currentPageAt(HomePage.class);

	public void should_see_article_with_title(String title) {
        assertThat(onHomePage().getTitle(), is(title));

    public void is_on_the_wikipedia_home_page() {

Page Objects are a way of encapsulating the implementation details about a particular page. Selenium 2 has particularly good support for page objects, and Thucydides leverages this. The sample page object can be found in the HomePage.java class:

	public class HomePage extends PageObject {

		private WebElement searchInput;

		private WebElement searchButton;

		public HomePage(WebDriver driver) {

		public void enter_keywords(String keyword) {

	    public void starts_search() {

The final piece in the puzzle is the Application.java class, which is a way of representing the structure of your requirements in Java form, so that your easyb and JUnit tests can be mapped back to the requirements they are testing:

	public class Application {
	    public class Search {
	        public class SearchByKeyword {}
	        public class SearchByAnimalRelatedKeyword {}
	        public class SearchByFoodRelatedKeyword {}
	        public class SearchByMultipleKeywords {}
	        public class SearchForQuote{}

	    public class Backend {
	        public class ProcessSales {}
	        public class ProcessSubscriptions {}

	    public class Contribute {
	        public class AddNewArticle {}
	        public class EditExistingArticle {}

This is what enables Thucydides to generate the aggregate reports about features and stories.


From http://weblogs.java.net/blog/johnsmart/archive/2011/10/31/getting-started-thucydides-%E2%80%93-using-thucydides-maven-archetypes

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