How To Build Scalable and Robust Enterprise Web Applications
This post provides various aspects that need to be considered while developing scalable and robust enterprise applications.
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This blog provides various aspects that need to be considered while developing scalable and robust enterprise applications. I will discuss the following areas of enterprise applications development and considerations:
- An application should have capabilities to accommodate growth and scale, should be modular to enhance or add new functionalities, and support gradual or abrupt surge. At the same time, it should be seamless for users and efficient for the organizations.
- Factors or Characteristics that influence the application scalability and robustness
- The different architecture patterns, pros, cons, and considerations: The standard architecture brings many advantages for development and better flexibility of the system for scaling.
- How to build scalable enterprise applications: What are the different design methods to consider across various components of the applications?
- Different technology, tools, framework, software that can be used while designing enterprise applications: Mostly we will highlight open source technologies as much as possible.
- Basic Architectural Design principles to consider for designing large scale applications
In the end, I will provide very high-level architecture considering most of the aspects discussed in this blog. I will provide information in the form of mind maps which I captured for the above areas.
1) What are the Design Principles to be considered?
2) What Are the Factors That Influences the Application Scalability and Robustness?
3) Architectural Patterns and Considerations
4) What Are the Design Methods To Be Considered for Various Components of the Application?
4.1) Authentication and Authorization
4.3) Other Design Considerations
5) Technology, Tools, Framework, Software To Use
In the below mind map, I tried to give as many as possible open-source implementations. However, in some cases, there are vendor-specific implementations as well.
6) Reference Architecture
The diagram below provides the reference architecture for building enterprise applications, especially web applications. This covers many of the architecture or design components discussed in this blog. However, there might be some of the design components omitted as well as it is difficult to depict everything in the diagram.
- Technology: Choose the right technology, tool, framework, software, hardware, database, storage, etc.
- Distribute: While scaling the application up, distribute as much work as you can away from the core
- Choose asynchronism methods over synchronous so that processing threads are not locked, and application resources are optimally used.
- API first: think of web application as API service
- Statelessness in-app as much as possible unless there is good reason to have state/store sessions; design components stateless, as they can easily be redistributed to support horizontal scaling
- Make sure to cache: they significantly improve scalability and performance
- Use queues wherever possible to make the task/messages atomic, retry/retrieve if fails, etc.
- Process Automation: Automate the business processes, workflow, rules, etc.
- Database Scaling: Through partitioning, indexing, read replica, offload database backup, etc.
- Design for Maintenance: monitor it and provide regular updates
- Choose a horizontal scale over a vertical: With a horizontal scale, we can just add another server rather than upgrade the existing one
- Load Balancing: Both front end and back end
- Scalability vs Failover: Don't rule out failures and design to prevent SPOF
- Deployment: CI/CD, ability to rollback deploy, automate as much as possible everything to deploy and run, etc.
- Testing Approach: Performance testing, load testing, failover/DR testing, functional testing automation. Make this repeatable process and have a strategy to test these frequently whenever required.
Published at DZone with permission of Chandra Manohar. See the original article here.
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