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Riffing on Java vs. Node/JavaScript

I just watched an interesting discussion of Java and Node supporters on Youtube, that got my brain ticking. This article is an explosion of various ideas I have about Java, Node, JavaScript, and explicitly typed and weak typed languages.

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I just watched an interesting discussion of Java and Node supporters on Youtube. The videos are in Spanish here and here. This subject is not indifferent to me. Soon my brain started to generate ideas, past facts, even traumatic experiences.

This article is an explosion of various ideas I have about Java, Node, JavaScript, and explicitly typed and weak typed languages.

The Root of Evil: Origins of JavaScript

In spite of being very young, I lived the birth of JavaScript. The W3C page about this historic fact is really scary. 

JavaScript, not to be confused with Java, was created in 10 days in May 1995 by Brendan Eich, then working at Netscape.

I don't remember the first release of Netscape browser with JavaScript, but I remember the reasons behind JS introduction:

  1. Provide a simple scripting language "inspired by" Java to control embedded Java applets in web pages.
  2. simple scripting language to control forms. 

Later, the public DOM representation of the page (partial initially), visible for JavaScript was introduced by Netscape, to provide some support of page changes driven by user actions beyond forms.

As you can see, the initial motivation was not to create a complete and powerful language to develop web client applications.

The JavaScript creators were just thinking of minor form manipulation (validations and similar), color changes, and some texts added to the web page on user demand, using no more than 100 lines of code (as an example).

Of course, developers are ambitious—they want more and more, browsers could be more sophisticated, and JavaScript could be improved... and yes, it happened until Microsoft destroyed Netscape—both the product and the company, MS Internet Explorer 5 won the browser war. Microsoft later released MSIE 6 and froze the web technology for many years, being the de facto browser with no competition because Netscape 4 (the loser) was crap, with an enormous technical dept. The code was finally open sourced and the Mozilla Foundation was created to build the new generation of W3C compliant browsers (almost no code from the old Netscape was reused.)

This reinvention took many years, meanwhile the absolute success of Windows XP + MSIE 6 and the lack of innovation from Microsoft in the web area, stalled the web technology including JavaScript, for many years, until Mozilla suite (first... FireFox later) started to gain popularity (you know the rest.) Today, MSIE 8 (not very different to MSIE 6) still has a significant user market (yes, really) and it is probable this market share is greater in companies.

The browsers have improved at rendering pages and executing JS code, but JavaScript, the language, is mainly the same thanks to Microsoft.

JavaScript is the result of lack of innovation. There is no "trascendental reason" or no "deep thinking" about how to make a good language good enough for a long future. For instance, the "prototype" feature was just a quick idea to create a mediocre object system, a mediocre version of Java and OOP , but good enough for a scripting language of  the past.

Monothread Asynchronous Programming Is More Performant Than Thread Based Programming

Sure you have read many times how bad and costly thread context switching is and how good mono-thread programming delegating blocking operations are to a thread pool (yes again, a thread pool, the dark secret of Node).

But, the real facts do not agree. Take a look Paul Tyma experimentsmy own insights, or the famous Tech Empower benchmarks. Take a look how the venerable raw Java servlet blocking threads in I/O are performing and the position of async I/O Java alternatives—of course Node is even in a lower position.

Java is Tedious and Verbose. Is Programming With JavaScript Quicker? 

It depends, if you are doing a very simple web application with Node, yes you are going to deliver some result before Java developers, but when the code becomes bigger and bigger the missing types are more a problem for productivity than an advantage.

The optional generics Java type system is not an evil invention to make the life of Java developers sadder; it is a tool to make your code more robust. The verbosity cost is backed with better code. Any Java developer understands that "List<User> hello" is a list of User (readability) and only can contain User objects (robust) in spite of the stupid variable name... is it bad?

Can you make big web applications in Node? Yes, of course. Anything is possible with effort and discipline (in weak typed languages the discipline must be "military", even more strict than a explicitly typed one), but in the long term a dynamic, weak typed language becomes a nightmare in projects with a lot of code, even in projects with a single developer (in my experience).

The Problem of Argumentation Based on Inferiority Complex

I remember when Java was invented and was becoming more and more popular. Java was initially a C++ simplification—many C++ developers received Java with some skepticism. To win more Java developers from C++, Java supporters praised the "simplification" as a feature. For instance, the Java class system lacked the powerful templating system of C++, "you don't need it, everything is more simple in Java." This kind of argument—trying to convert the inferiority in an advantage—is unfair and a bad trick, but it usually works. Years later, Java 1.5 introduced generics, yes conceptually similar to the venerable C++ templates.

This is an example of the art of converting a limitation into a feature. In spite of being a Java guy for many years (and a C++ guy before), Java marketing was dishonest.

A Node instance has only one working thread—no concurrency problems. On the other hand, end developers are forced to execute all business logic of all concurrent users in the same single thread. This introduces a severe limitation, the problem of "CPU bound applications." Your business logic must be very simple and quick, otherwise all users will be stalled.

Related to the previous limitation, do you know the anecdote "Why npm's progress bar slows down install time by ~20%".  The explanation is simple, the progress bar updating is time consuming and is executed in the main thread instead of starting a new thread. I'm sure it will be fixed, maybe executing the log operation in an extension coded in C/C++ in a different thread or similar. This makes me wonder, are we living in the year 1970? Are we coding on Windows 3.1/95 (the later with a crappy not preemptive thread system)?

In practice any Node application is multithread because blocking I/O operations are executed through a thread pool, whether the thread context switching is time costly, Node has the same problem as a thread per request pool.

Node is trying to sell us how is good lacking thread programming, "the missing feature is the best feature". Something similar happens in JavaScript space, the inherent lack of features to structure code (that is the lack of decent OOP support) is sold as "freedom" and simplification.

JavaScript is mediocre, period (ES6 is a step forward, it would be even better if types were optional like in Dart). Do you like JavaScript/Node? Right, but formally it is a mediocre language, hard to defend outside of the browser—Java is by far superior.

Is Java the best language OOP/functional of the world? Of course it is not. In the OOP space, I'm sure most people agree with me that Scala, Kotlin, Ceylon, typed Groovy, or C# are superior languages, no problem, and in no way is Java the best functional language.

"The Language Is Not Important, the Developer Is"

Yes, you heard/read this polite phrase often. And yes, a good developer can be good in any language, but...

  • A good surgeon is a good surgeon in a shelter tent and in a conventional operating room of a modern hospital. Try asking him/her what is the best place for surgery...
  • Can you do surgery with a kitchen knife? Yes, you can, but I'm sure you'd prefer a scalpel.
  • Do you think a veterinary surgeon is appropriated to do surgery to humans?

The Myth of Complexity of Concurrence Management in "Conventional" Request-thread Web Apps

This is a very bad argument. A very big percentage of conventional web apps have no problem with thread concurrency because, in most of them, all of the code is single thread because they have no need to deal with other parallel requests (threads). The database is, in practice, the synchronization point; all decent RDBMS ensure consistency in column writes and if you need a more sophisticated synchronization you have transactions.

Node, JavaScript, and Foundation Libraries

Java is not only the language, a large library is part of the Java platform. It doesn't prevent smart developers from picking alternatives (for instance Guava, Apache HttpClient, Apache Commons, etc.)

The same does not apply to Node, something so basic as a decent collection system (beyond the crazy native arrays of JavaScript) must be externally downloaded.

An Explicit Type System is Not Only to Reduce the Number of Tests

Yes, you know how useful a good type system is; if you do something wrong usually some other place breaks and the compiler advises you without the need of executing tests.

However, an explicit type system provides more, very important benefits:

  • Readability: read the code of a Java class from a decent open source product, I'm sure you're going to understand the function of the class by just reading the types.
  • Robust code: MyClass obj only can reference MyClass objects or inherited from, List<MyClass> list is a list and only can contain objects of MyClass or inherited (a final class is also possible).
  • Reliable code navigation: any decent Java IDE offers a "Find Usages" ("References" in Eclipse) feature, if you use this feature selecting "any" element of your code, the IDE is going to show with precision all uses of this element (an attribute, param, local variable, method, constructor, class name etc).
  • Reliable code refactoring: any decent Java IDE offers many options for easy and secure refactoring, for instance, name changing (the simpler case, IDEs offer more complex refactoring options). Brutal refactorings can be performed with almost no risk.

Paradigms, Paradigms, Paradigms

At the end of the day, the moar important characteristic of your preferred language is the paradigms supported, for instance, structured (ex. C), OOP, OOP+functional (Java, Scala...), pure functional (Lisp, Haskell, Closure...).

In Node/JS, you can do OOP, but the approach is tedious and cumbersome.

I suspect in practice OOP is not mainstream in JavaScript (maybe "objects"). I suspect mainstream JavaScript code is like C with functions capturing context vars, or something similar to VisualBasic 6 pre-.Net (had classes but not inheritance and polymorphism.)

I'm not kidding, take a look this C like code of Mozilla based products (for instance FireFox).

The Myth of Inheritance Abuse

Some people say that "people" usually abuse using inheritance, one reason for bashing OOP (the typical all-or-nothing argument—a bad argument in my opinion.)

I don't agree—in the real world it is the contrary. Many people inherit only when there is no other option (when the API being used provides an abstract class or interface to implement) but rarely you are seeing fully user defined inheritance trees not forced by the frameworks. Of course, this is my personal opinion and isn't scientifically backed.

Many people ignore how to model a class system including inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism when appropriated; others maybe because they are following the mantra of some "gurus" saying "inheritance is bad".

A long time ago when OOP became popular, many people abused inheritance trying to fit too many things in the same class tree—for instance, a class User inherited with visual code, persistent code, networking, etc. Fortunately, that time is gone, however, some people today harken back to this old, crazy approach because they don't like the modern layering/services approaches (and usually they are the same people saying that inheritance is bad).

Fortunately, good OOP developers use inheritance (the complete OOP features in general) when needed.

Can You Answer These Questions?

  • A Big Data tool made in Node.js

Hadoop, HBase, Spark, Storm, Kafka, Cassandra, Kubernetes, Docker? Most of the Big Data tools are made in Java or a similar JVM lang (Docker and Kubernetes are Go).

  • Replacing Java Android core on top of C++ by Node.js

Maybe, but...is this really a good idea? I remember years ago the filtered statement of a Google executive about the language on Android being something like "Java is the only option, anything else is crap" (modern JVM statically typed langs were not created yet).

  • A desktop application in Node.js 

FireFox, Thunderbird, etc. do not apply because most of the code is C++, the JavaScript/HTML/XUL is the external layer. In the case of Java, just see the three main IDEs: NetBeans, Eclipse, IntelliJ (Visual Studio as far I know is C++ and .Net).

Does Node.js Have a Reasonable Place in the World?

Yes course, Node is useful for conventional web sites with small and relatively simple business code.

Oh yes, some important parts of PayPal are built with Node, almost all of the public web site. Right, okay. However, PayPal is a relatively easy service. Yes really, PayPal is a far cry away from the enormous complexity of the Google, Amazon, or Apple ecosystems. I remember the article about the "competition" of the options, Java and Node, for replacing the old C++ based tech of PayPal, I'm sure you know Node won.

In my opinion, it is quicker to make simple spaghetti than a solid Java application, and, as far as I remember, the Java developers in PayPal tried to include every Java framework invented in SpringSource and GitHub (the competition was to make a quick prototype of a service, not a production service) and imported also the kitchen sink. Yes, Node is fine in the short term, the long term is different... remember the case of Twitter and Ruby—I respect Ruby. Twitter is as is thanks to the flexibility of Ruby in the beginning, before becoming the current monster, by the way, today based mainly on Java.

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Topics:
java ,node ,javascript

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