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Linux Operating System


The major software program running on a computer is the operating system (OS), which manages the memory, software, hardware and other processes on a computer. 

An OS facilitates communication between a computer and its user. It also sees to it that there is no overlapping of different programs running simultaneously on a computer. 

There are different types of OSs, real time, multitasking, multi-user, among others, that are classified so because of their different properties. 

In a real time OS, response is instantaneous to a task. The multi-user OS lets more than one user access the computer at the same time. The multitasking OS enables running of more than one program simultaneously. 

The popular OSs are Windows, Mac, Linux, etc. Till early 90s, disk operating system, or DOS, was the most popular OS. 

Linux OS is an OS that is open source - where the source code of the program is freely accessible to any user, and it can be modified by them as per their requirements. 

Resembling UNIX, its kernel, the chief component of this OS, was the brainchild of Linus Torvalds, a Finland-based computer scientist, in 1991. He was responsible for both the Linux OS's conceptualization and design, which was made possible by using system components of GNU project of the Free Software Foundation, headed by Richard Stallman, a former professor with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). 

In fact, the popular mobile operating system of Google, Android, has been developed using Linux kernel. 

It derives its name from the combination of its creator's first name and UNIX. It became contracted to Linux. 

It originally began as an OS for servers and spread its tentacles over to desktops and other devices. Lot of companies working on their own versions of Linux have developed the graphical user interfaces (GUIs). 

A cross-platform operating system, Linux OS, it runs on various computer models, unlike Windows 95 and Windows 98, which run only on central processing units (CPUs) that have the Intel architecture.

Within Linux, there are two components, which are file and process. Process, an executing program, is recognized by PID, a unique process identifier. Processes can either be of short time periods or could run indefinitely. 

While a grouping of data is called a file. Text editors, compilers and other procedures are used for creating a file. The onus of organizing processes and communicating with files lies with the Linux kernel. Time and memory are allocated to the kernel, which manages the interaction and file system as per system calls.

In Linux, the shell, a program, conveys inputted commands to the operating system for execution. They are in the form of command line interfaces (CLIs), or GUIs.

New versions contain Bourne Again Shell (bash), an improved version of the original shell program. 

The other components of this OS are an X Window System, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), among others. 

The X Window System, also known as X, is a client/server system that handles a windowed GUI in a distributed network. While TCP/IP is the Internet lingo. 

Some of the advantages Linux OS include:

You can buy it with the GNU General Public License, which is a lot cheaper than other OSs. Linux is free to download, or can be bought from a retailer, who sells it along with special applications. If you purchase it from a retailer, you also get technical support. Even in the second case, Linux is much cheaper than its proprietary counterparts of Windows or Mac.This OS is being regularly updated, therefore its pace of progress is going to be much faster than the other OSs in future. There is no need to reboot it regularly to maintain its performance Users, wanting to have more control over their OSs normally, prefer it over others.Although not initially as user-friendly as Windows, the OS offers users more flexibility. It is endowed with memory protection between processes, so as to prevent one program from crashing the whole system.It has the capability to run multiple processes on the same memory. It is much easier to set up client and server systems computers running this OS. Network backups can performed more quickly and dependably than on other OSs. Disk space can be saved by installing only components which are needed by a user. It can process all common file formats.There is a wider choice of customized OS features, as it is developed by many organizations, such as RedHat, Debian, Ubuntu, SuSe, etc. This allows you to login graphically and begin working. It is very convenient on this OS to add more software programs. Its working is not affected even when the hard disk is nearly full.Multitasking on Linux does not reduce the speed of your other tasks. It is very secure as it has flexible file access permission systems and other protection software. Its disadvantages, on the other hand, are that there is no available third-party support; it requires more than basic knowledge of computers to get it up and running; and users themselves need to configure its GUI to a large extent.


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