Market Basket Analysis Using Oracle Data Mining
Learn how to use Oracle data mining to do market basket analysis — a theory that if you buy a certain group of items, you're likely to buy another group of items.
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In this article, I will do market basket analysis with Oracle data mining.
Data science and machine learning are very popular today. But these subjects require extensive knowledge and application expertise. We can solve these problems with various products and software that have been developed by various companies. In Oracle, methods and algorithms for solving these problems are presented to users with the
DBMS_DATA_MINING package, we can create models such as clustering, classification, regression, anomaly detection, feature extraction, and association. We can interpret efficiency with the models we create. The results we obtain from these models can be put into our business scenario.
DBMS_DATA_MINING package does not come up by default on the Oracle database. For this reason, it's necessary to install this package first. You can set up your database with Oracle data mining by following this link.
With the installation of the Oracle data mining package, three new dictionary tables are created:
SELECT * FROM ALL_MINING_MODELS; SELECT * FROM ALL_MINING_MODEL_SETTINGS; SELECT * FROM ALL_MINING_MODEL_ATTRIBUTES;
ALL_MINING_MODELS table contains information about all the models.
ALL_MINING_MODELS_ATTRIBUTES tables contain parameters and specific details about these models.
Now, let's prepare an easily understood data set to do market basket analysis.
Let's first examine the ONLINE_RETAIL dataset.
|Column Name||Description||Data type|
|InvoiceNo||Invoice number. Nominal, a 6-digit integral number uniquely assigned to each transaction. If this code starts with letter ‘c’, it indicates a cancellation.||String|
|StockCode||Product (item) code. Nominal, a 5-digit integral number uniquely assigned to each distinct product.||String|
|Description||Product (item) name. Nominal.||String|
|Quantity||The quantities of each product (item) per transaction. Numeric.||Numeric|
|InvoiceDate||Invice Date and time. Numeric, the day and time when each transaction was generated.||Date|
|UnitPrice||Unit price. Numeric, Product price per unit in sterling.||Numeric|
|CustomerID||Customer number. Nominal, a 5-digit integral number uniquely assigned to each customer.||Numeric|
|Country||Country name. Nominal, the name of the country where each customer resides.||
Now that we have reviewed the details with our dataset, let's load the ONLINE_RETAIL that we downloaded to our Oracle database.
First, create the Oracle table in which we will load the data set (XLS) that we downloaded.
CREATE TABLE ONLINE_RETAIL ( INVOICENO VARCHAR2(100 BYTE), STOCKCODE VARCHAR2(100 BYTE), DESCRIPTION VARCHAR2(200 BYTE), QUANTITY NUMBER, INVOICEDATE DATE, UNITPRICE NUMBER, CUSTOMERID NUMBER, COUNTRY VARCHAR2(100 BYTE) );
Now that we have created our table, we will load the dataset we downloaded as CSV into the table; we have multiple methods to do this:
Using Oracle External Table
Using Oracle SQL Loader
Using SQL-PL/SQL editors (Oracle SQL Developer, Toad, PL/SQL Developer...)
I will load the dataset with the editor that I am using. I use Toad as an editor. With Toad, you can perform the data loading process by following the steps below.
Database > Import > Import Table Data
You may not be using this editor because Toad is paid. This feature is available to other editors, so you can easily do this with other editors. For example, with Oracle SQL Developer for free, you can load data as follows using Oracle SQL Developer.
SELECT * FROM ONLINE_RETAIL;
We have completed the dataset installation process.
When we observe the data, we see the details of the purchases made by the customers. Each row contains information on which products are taken, how much they are received, who bought this product, what date it bought, how much it costs, and from which country. When we examine the data in detail, we also observe that there are one or more records belonging to the same InvoiceNo. So we can think of InvoiceNo as a basket.
Now let's observe a sample basket.
SELECT * FROM ONLINE_RETAIL WHERE INVOICENO = '536368';
Yes, we saw an example basket.
Now, let's analyze these together to determine the best-selling products together. I will give you some information about the algorithm used for better understanding of the subject before we start the association analysis.
DBMS_DATA_MINING package performs association analysis with APRIORI algorithm. To use this algorithm, we need to define some parameters. The default values for these parameters and parameters are as follows:
The article on the link can be reviewed to better understand the algorithm parameters and what they mean. Now, we will read the model settings, create a table, and insert the algorithm parameters into it.
CREATE TABLE SETTINGS_ASSOCIATION_RULES AS SELECT * FROM TABLE (DBMS_DATA_MINING.GET_DEFAULT_SETTINGS) WHERE SETTING_NAME LIKE 'ASSO_%'; BEGIN UPDATE SETTINGS_ASSOCIATION_RULES SET SETTING_VALUE = 3 WHERE SETTING_NAME = DBMS_DATA_MINING.ASSO_MAX_RULE_LENGTH; UPDATE SETTINGS_ASSOCIATION_RULES SET SETTING_VALUE = 0.03 WHERE SETTING_NAME = DBMS_DATA_MINING.ASSO_MIN_SUPPORT; UPDATE SETTINGS_ASSOCIATION_RULES SET SETTING_VALUE = 0.03 WHERE SETTING_NAME = dbms_data_mining.asso_min_confidence; INSERT INTO SETTINGS_ASSOCIATION_RULES VALUES (DBMS_DATA_MINING.ODMS_ITEM_ID_COLUMN_NAME, 'STOCKCODE'); COMMIT; END;
Yes, we have created the algorithm parameter table. Now we can move on to the step of creating our model.
CREATE VIEW VW_ONLINE_RETAIL AS SELECT INVOICENO,STOCKCODE FROM ONLINE_RETAIL; BEGIN DBMS_DATA_MINING.CREATE_MODEL( model_name => 'MD_ASSOC_ANLYSIS', mining_function => DBMS_DATA_MINING.ASSOCIATION, data_table_name => 'VW_ONLINE_RETAIL', case_id_column_name => 'INVOICENO', target_column_name => NULL, settings_table_name => 'SETTINGS_ASSOCIATION_RULES'); END;
Now that we have our model, let's look at the details about the model now from the dictionary.
SELECT MODEL_NAME, ALGORITHM, COMMENTS, CREATION_DATE, MINING_FUNCTION, MODEL_SIZE FROM ALL_MINING_MODELS WHERE MODEL_NAME = 'MD_ASSOC_ANLYSIS';
SELECT SETTING_NAME, SETTING_VALUE FROM ALL_MINING_MODEL_SETTINGS WHERE MODEL_NAME = 'MD_ASSOC_ANLYSIS';
Let's look at the output of the analysis.
SELECT RULE_ID, B.ATTRIBUTE_SUBNAME ANTECEDENT_STOCKCODE, C.ATTRIBUTE_SUBNAME CONSEQUENT_STOCKCODE, RULE_SUPPORT, RULE_CONFIDENCE FROM TABLE (DBMS_DATA_MINING.GET_ASSOCIATION_RULES ('MD_ASSOC_ANLYSIS')) A, TABLE (A.ANTECEDENT) B, TABLE (A.CONSEQUENT) C;
As a result of the parameters we have given to the algorithm, we have reached and displayed products with high sales rate together. It is possible to make different analyzations by changing the parameters of the algorithm.
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