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Migrating a PHP 5 App to PHP 7: Part I

DZone's Guide to

Migrating a PHP 5 App to PHP 7: Part I

Many PHP apps still run on PHP 5.x, not ready to take advantage of awesome PHP 7 features because of compatibility issues and the time-consuming nature of migration.

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PHP 5 has been around for a very long time — over 10 years now. In fact, many production PHP apps are currently running on either PHP 5.2, 5.3, or 5.6. PHP 5 brought a lot of awesome features to PHP such as:

  • Robust Support for Object oriented programming.
  • Standard PHP Library (SPL).
  • Closures.
  • Namespaces.
  • Magical methods for metaprogramming.
  • MySQLi - improved MySQL extension.
  • Cleaner Error handling.
  • Better support for XML extensions.

Unfortunately, everything that has a beginning must have an end. PHP 5.6 active support ended January 19, 2017. It will receive security support until December 31, 2018.

Supported ReleasePHP 5 and 7 release and support duration.

PHP 7.0 was officially released on December 3, 2015, with a lot of new features and better performance benefits. It is twice as fast as PHP 5. A summary of the new features are highlighted below:

  • Return and scalar-type declarations.
  • Better Unicode support.
  • Null coalescing operator.
  • Fatal errors conversion to exceptions.
  • Generator enhancement.
  • Anonymous classes.
  • Secure random number generator.
  • Removal of deprecated features.

There's much more! If you aren't using any of the deprecated features in your PHP 5 app, then the transition to PHP 7 will be seamless. In the next post, I'll give a very detailed rundown of PHP 7 features, including the deprecated features.

Upgrading Your Development Environment to PHP 7

The first step to upgrading your application to use PHP 7 features is to migrate your development environment from PHP 5.x to PHP 7.x. We will cover how to upgrade your development environment to run PHP 7.x on Ubuntu, CentOs, Windows, and Mac OS machines.

Mac OS X

If you are a fan of Homebrew, you can install PHP 7.0 via homebrew like so:

brew tap homebrew/dupes
brew tap homebrew/versions
brew tap homebrew/homebrew-php
brew unlink php56
brew install php70

If you were using PHP 5.6, then you should unlink the old PHP by running brew unlink php56 or else unlink whatever version is present before you go ahead to install PHP 7.0.

Another option is to install it via curl on your terminal like so:

curl -s https://php-osx.liip.ch/install.sh | bash -s 7.0

Windows

If you are a fan of WAMP or XAMPP, then you can just download the latest versions of the software. It comes packaged with PHP 7.0.

XAMPP downloadDownload and install the last/latest version.

Another option is to download the PHP 7.0 distribution for Windows.

Ubuntu

If you are running Ubuntu on your machine, especially around v14 and 15, you can install PHP 7.0 by running these commands:

sudo apt-get update
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

sudo apt-get install -y php7.0-fpm php7.0-cli php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-intl php7.0-mysql

Note: You can check out how to install PHP 7 and Nginx here, and manually build Memcached module for PHP 7.

Debian

If you are running Debian on your machine, especially around v6, v7, and v8, you can install PHP 7.0 by doing the following:

  • Open up your /etc/apt/sources.list file, and make sure you have these commands below:

If you are using a Jessie distribution:

deb http://packages.dotdeb.org jessie all
deb-src http://packages.dotdeb.org jessie all

If you are using a Wheezy distribution:

deb http://packages.dotdeb.org wheezy all
deb-src http://packages.dotdeb.org wheezy all
  • Fetch and Install the GnuPG key.
wget https://www.dotdeb.org/dotdeb.gpg
sudo apt-key add dotdeb.gpg
  • Install PHP 7.0.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install php7.0

CentOS/Red Hat Enterprise Linux

If you are running CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux operating system on your machine, you can install PHP 7.0 by running the following commands on your terminal like so:

sudo yum update
rpm -Uvh https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm
rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/webtatic-release.rpm
sudo yum install php70w
sudo yum install php70w-mysql

When you are done, run the command php -v. You should see something like this:

PHP 7.0.0 (cli) (built: Dec  2 2015 20:42:32) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) 1997-2015 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.0.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2015 Zend Technologies

PHPBrew

PHPBrew is a tool that you can use to build and install multiple versions of PHP on your machine. It can:

  • Build PHP with different variants like PDO, MySQL, SQLite, debug, etc.
  • Compile Apache PHP module and separate them by different versions.
  • Switch versions very easily and is integrated with Bash/ZSH shell.
  • Install & enable PHP extensions into the current environment with ease.
  • Install multiple PHP into a system-wide environment.
  • Detect path for Homebrew and MacPorts.

phpbrewPHPBrew.

You can install it on your machine like so:

curl -L -O https://github.com/phpbrew/phpbrew/raw/master/phpbrew
chmod +x phpbrew

Then, you can install it into your BIN folder like so:

sudo mv phpbrew /usr/local/bin/phpbrew

Note: Make sure you have /usr/local/bin in your $PATH environment variable.

You can install PHP 7 by running the following commands:

phpbrew self-update
phpbrew install next as php-7.1.0
phpbrew use php-7.1.0

You can use PHPBrew to install PHP 7.0 from GitHub like so:

phpbrew install github:php/php-src@PHP-7.0 as php-7.0.0

Most of the time, we use PHP with other extensions such as MySQL, PDO, OpenSSL, etc. You can use PHPBrew to build your PHP environment with various variants like so:

phpbrew install 7.0.0 +mysql+mcrypt+openssl+debug+sqlite

This command above will build PHP with MySQL, mycrypt, OpenSSL, debug, and SQLite.

Vagrant

Vagrant provides a simple, elegant way to manage and provision Virtual Machines. The development environments that run on Vagrant are packaged via Vagrant boxes. Vagrant boxes are completely disposable. If something goes wrong, you can destroy and re-create the box in minutes! One of such boxes I recommend is Laravel Homestead.

Note: You can check out some free courses on learning how to use Vagrant here

Laravel Homestead

Laravel Homestead is an official, pre-packaged Vagrant box that provides you a wonderful development environment without requiring you to install PHP, a web server, and any other server software on your local machine. Homestead runs on any Windows, Mac, or Linux system. It includes the following:

  • Ubuntu 16.04.
  • Git.
  • PHP 7.1 (Latest version of PHP).
  • Nginx.
  • MySQL.
  • MariaDB.
  • Sqlite3.
  • Postgres.
  • Composer.
  • Node (With Yarn, PM2, Bower, Grunt, and Gulp).
  • Redis.
  • Memcached.
  • Beanstalkd.
  • Install VirtualBox 5.1, or VMWare, and Vagrant.
  • Now that you have Vagrant and VirtualBox or VMware installed, go ahead and download the Laravel Homestead box like so:
vagrant box add laravel/homestead

Follow the instructions on the Laravel Homestead documentation to find out more about the installation process.

I recommend Windows users take a stab at using Laragon. It provides an alternative but suitable and powerful environment like Laravel Homestead.

php7dev

Another Vagrant image is php7dev by Rasmus Ledorf (Creator of PHP). It is a Debian 8 Vagrant image which is preconfigured for testing PHP apps and developing extensions across many versions of PHP. You can gloriously switch between PHP versions by using the newphp command.

Follow the instructions on the README to find out how to install, configure, and use it.

Valet

Valet is a PHP development environment for Mac minimalists. It was built by Taylor and Adam Wathan of the Laravel community. It is a fast blazing development environment that uses roughly 7MB of RAM. It requires Homebrew.

Laravel Valet configures Mac to use PHP's built-in web server in the background when your machine starts. With Valet, if you create a project folder called auth0-php, then you can just open auth0-php.dev in your browser and it will serve the contents of the folder automatically.

You can share whatever you are working on locally with someone in another part of the world by just running this command:

valet share

Valet shareValet uses Ngrok under the hood to share.

You can even serve a local site over encrypted TLS using HTTP/2 by invoking a command like so:

valet secure blog

where blog is the name of the site or project folder. Valet generates a Fresh local TLS certificate.

Secure the BlogInvoke the secure command.

Secure BlogSite is served over https locally.

Very awesome!

Out of the box, Valet supports LaravelLumenSymfonyZendCakePHP 3WordpressBedrockCraftStatamic, and Jigsaw. However, you can extend Valet with your own custom drivers.

Follow the instructions on the Laravel valet documentation to find out how to install and get started using it.

Docker

php7-dockerized

php7-dockerized is a simple PHP 7 Docker and Compose environment that is bundled with Nginx and MySQL. Follow the instructions on setting up a local PHP 7 development environment with Docker and Compose.

Laradock

Laradock is a docker PHP development environment that gives you a wonderful development environment without requiring you to install PHP 7, Nginx, MySQL, Redis, and any other software on your machines.

  • Clone Laradock inside your project like so:
git clone https://github.com/Laradock/laradock.git
  • Enter the Laradock folder and run this command:
docker-compose up -d nginx mysql redis beanstalkd
  • Open your .env file and set the following:
DB_HOST=mysql
REDIS_HOST=redis
QUEUE_HOST=beanstalkd

Follow the instructions on the Laradock documentation to find out how to install and configure it.

phpdocker

phpdocker.io is a PHP and Docker generated environment. It supports PHP 7 up until 7.1 beta. Follow the instructions to set it up like so:

  • Clone https://github.com/phpdocker-io/phpdocker.io.
  • Copy app/config/parameters.yml.dist into app/config/parameters.yml.
  • Run composer install.
  • Run bower install.
  • Run php bin/console assets:install --symlink --relative.
  • Run docker-compose up -d.

Don't hesitate to submit an issue on the phpdocker-io repo if you hit a roadblock.

Note: Chris Fidao has a fantastic course on Docker. With his course on shippingdocker.com, you'll learn how to use Docker in development, testing, and production.

There are different ways of setting up a PHP 7 development environment. The few I have mentioned here should give you a lot of options in getting your machine ready to effectively test PHP 7 features.

Conclusion

We have successfully covered various ways of setting up a PHP 7 development environment. The first step to migrating an app from a specific language version to another is ensuring that the development environment supports the new version.

Do you have other ways of setting up PHP 7 development environments? Are you currently using an awesome tool to run your PHP 7 apps? Please let me know in the comments section.

In the next article, we'll go through all the features of PHP 7 that you can leverage when migrating your PHP 5 application!

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