Rene Pickhardt, one of our MVBs, has been working on his PHD on graph dtabases, here's his proposal from last March.
[TODO] 0. Find a template for the PhD proposal
That is straight forward. The task is just to look at other students PhD proposals also at some major conferences and see what kind of structure they use. A very common structure for papers is Jennifer Widom’s structure for writing a good research paper. This or a similar template will help to make the proposal readable in a good way. For this blog article I will follow Jennifer Widom more or less.
1. Write an Introduction
Here I will describe the use case(s) of a distributed graph data base. These could be
- indexing the web graph for a general purpose search engine like Google, Bing, Baidu, Yandex…
- running the backend of a social network like Facebook, Google+, Twitter, LinkedIn,…
- storing web log files and click streams of users
- doing information retrieval (recommender systems) in the above scenarios
There could also be very other use cases like graphs from
- regular graphs
- geographic maps like road and traffic networks
2. Discuss all the related work
This is done to name all the existing approaches and challenges that come with a distributed graph data base. It is also important to set onself apart from existing frameworks like graph processing. Here I will name the at least the related work in the following fields:
- graph processing (Signal Collect, Pregel,…)
- graph theory (especially data structures and algorithms)
- (dynamic/adaptive) graph partitioning
- distributed computing / systems (MPI, Bulk Synchronous Parallel Programming, Map Reduce, P2P, distributed hash tables, distributed file systems…)
- redundancy vs fault tolerance
- network programming (protocols, latency vs bandwidth)
- data bases (ACID, multiple user access, …)
- graph data base query languages (SPARQL, Gremlin, Cypher,…)
- Social Network and graph analysis and modelling.
3. Formalize the problem of distributed graph data bases
After describing the related work and knowing the standard terminology it makes sense to really formalize the problem. Several steps have to be taken: There needs to be notation for distributed graph data bases fixed. This has to respect two things:
a) the real – so far unknown – problems that will be solved during PhD. In this way fixing the notation and formalizing the (unknown) problem will be kind of hard.
b) The use cases: For the web use case this will probably translate to scale free small world network graphs with a very small diameter. Probably in order to respect other use cases than the web it will make sense to cite different graph models e.g. mathematical models to generate graphs with certain properties from the related work.
The important step here is that fixing a use case will also fix a notation and help to formalize the problem. The crucial part is to choose the use case still so general that all special cases and boarder line cases are included. Especially the use case should be a real extension to graph processing which should of course be possible with a distributed graph data base.
One very important part of the formalization will lead to a first research question:
4. Graph Query languages – Graph Algebra
I think graph data bases are not really general purpose data bases. They exist to solve a certain class of problems in a certain range. They seem to be especially useful where information of a local neighborhood of data points is frequently needed. They also often seem to be useful when schemaless data is processed. This leads to the question of a query language. Obviously (?) the more general the query language the harder to have a very efficient solution. The model of a relational algebra was a very successful concept in relational data bases. I guess a similar graph algebra is needed as a mathmatical concept for distributed graph data bases as a foundation of their query languages.
Remark that this chapter has nothing much to do with distributed graph data bases but with graph data bases in general.
The graph algebra I have in mind so far is pretty similar to neo4j and consists of some atomic CRUD operations. Once the results are known (ether as an answer from the related work or by own research) I will be able to run my first experiments in a distributed environment.
5. Analysis of Basic graph data structures vs distribution strategies vs Basic CRUD operations
As expected the graph algebra will consist of some atomic CRUD operations those operations have to be tested against all different data structures one can think of in the different known distributed environments over several different real world data sets. This task will be rather straight forward. It will be possible to know the theoretical results of most implementations. The reason for this experiment is to collect experimental experiences in a distributed setting and to understand what is really happening and where the difficulties in a distributed setting are. Already in the evaluation of graphity I realized that there is a huge gap between theoretical predictions and the real results. In this way I am convinced that this experiment is a good step forward and the deep understanding of actually implementing all this will hopefully lead to:
6. Development of hybrid data structures (creative input)
It would be the first time in my life where I am running such an experiment without any new ideas coming up to tweak and tune. So I am expecting to have learnt a lot from the first experiment in order to have some creative ideas how to combine several data structures and distribution techniques in order to make a better (especially bigger scaling) distributed graph data base technology.
7. Analysis of multiple user access and ACID
One important fact of a distributed graph data base that was not in the focus of my research so far is the part that actually makes it a data base and sets it apart from some graph processing frame work. Even after finding a good data structure and distributed model there are new limitations coming once multiple user access and ACID are introduced. These topics are to some degree orthogonal to the CRUD operations examined in my first planned experiment. I am pretty sure that the experiments from above and more reading on ACID in distributed computing will lead to more reasearch questions and ideas how to test several standard ACID strategies for several data structures in several distributed environments. In this sense this chapter will be an extension to the 5. paragraph.
8. Again creative input for multiple user access and ACID
After heaving learnt what the best data structures for basic query operations in a distributed setting are and also what the best methods to achieve ACID are it is time for more creative input. This will have the goal to find a solution (data structure and distribution mechanism) that respects both the speed of basic query operations and the ease for ACID. Once this done everything is straight forward again.
9. Comprehensive benchmark of my solution with existing frameworks
My own solution has to be benchmarked against all the standard technologies for distributed graph data bases and graph processing frameworks.
10. Conclusion of my PhD proposal
So the goal of my PhD is to analyse different data structures and distribution techniques for a realization of distributed graph data base. This will be done with respect to a good runtime of some basic graph queries (CRUD) respecting a standardized graph query algebra as well as muli user access and the paradigms of ACID.
11 Timetable and mile stones
This is a rough schedual fixing some of the major mile stones.
- 2012 / 04: hand in PhD proposal
- 2012 / 07: graph query algebra is fixed. Maybe a paper is submitted
- 2012 / 10: experiments of basic CRUD operations done
- 2013 / 02: paper with results from basic CRUD operations done
- 2013 / 07: preliminary results on ACID and multi user experiments are done and submitted to a conference
- 2013 /08: min 3 month research internship in a company benchmarking my system on real data
- end of 2013: publishing the results
- 2014: 9 months of writing my dissertation
For anyone who has input, knows of papers or can point me to similar research I am more than happy if you could contact me or start the discussion!
Thank you very much for reading so far!