New declarative security features in Servlet 3.0
Servlet 3.0 is not only about the replacement of the web.xml deployment descriptor by annotations. In this article, we’ll see what improvement it makes in the realm of security.
In Servlet 2.5 (and before that), declarative security was about the following features:
- authentication method (BASIC, FORM, etc)
- authorization to differents parts of the application (web application resources)
- data confidentiality and integrity
- session time-out
Servlet 3.0 adds standardized ways regarding two configuration items.
The first parameter is how the session id is sent from the client to the server, so as for the latter to recognize the same session. Earlier in my carreer, I learnt that the first time an application server sends a response back to the client, it passes a cookie back and also appends to the URL, both referencing the unique jsessionid. Now, as soon as the second request is passed to the server, the latter knows the client accepts cookie or not and uses the appropriate mechanism: in essence, the strategy can be sumed up by “cookies first but fallback to URL rewriting if not possible”. Granted, there was a time when you couldn’t count on your client’s browsers to have cookies allowed. Nowadays, URL rewriting is first seen as a way to makes session hijacking easy as pie – even with HTTPS – since the id belongs to the URL. Hell, you’ll even find it in the logs! Servlet 3.0 aims to allow us to force the cookie strategy. The web.xml fragment to take care of this is the following:
<session-config> <cookie-config> <secure>true</secure> </cookie-config> </session-config>
Need for security are most often rediscoverd at the end of the development phase, when it costs much to implement. Moreover, some (if not most) securing nodes are a sysadmin’s responsibilities (configuring the 3rd-party LDAP, HTTPS, etc.). For example, the two previous capabilities were implementation dependent. This leaves security a very obscure field for young (and not-so-young) developers. I think that enhancements such as those provided by Servlet 3.0 tend to increase mutual understanding between developers and sysadmins.