While is it generally understood that keys or elements in a HashMap or HashSet occur in a pseudo random order, what is not obvious is that two collections with the same elements can be in different orders. This is because the capacity of the collection also determines the order the elements appear.

This can be important if you have only an Iterator to a Set. It is easy to assume the order will be the same and most of the time it will work (you can write unit tests with this assumption which will pass) However, if the Set has a different capacity (something you don't normally know or worry about) the order will change.

### Find what order elements can appear in

The following test adds the same 11 elements to a HashSet, each time with a different collection and prints out all the combinations it finds.

@Test public void testSetOrder() { Set<String> order = new HashSet<String>(); Collection<String> elements = Arrays.asList( "zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten".split(", ")); try { for(int i=1;i > 0;i*=2) { Set set = new HashSet<String>(i, 100.0f); set.addAll(elements); String str = set.toString(); if (order.add(str)) System.out.println("HashSet("+i+") order was "+str); } } catch(OutOfMemoryError ignored) { } }

prints this output

HashSet(1) order was [ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one, zero] HashSet(2) order was [eight, three, zero, ten, nine, seven, six, five, four, two, one] HashSet(4) order was [three, zero, ten, two, eight, nine, seven, six, five, four, one] HashSet(8) order was [three, ten, two, seven, five, four, zero, eight, nine, six, one] HashSet(16) order was [ten, two, seven, five, nine, one, three, four, zero, eight, six] HashSet(32) order was [ten, five, nine, one, zero, eight, six, two, seven, three, four] HashSet(64) order was [ten, nine, one, zero, eight, six, three, four, five, two, seven] HashSet(128) order was [ten, nine, zero, eight, three, one, six, four, five, two, seven] HashSet(256) order was [nine, zero, six, ten, eight, three, one, four, five, two, seven] HashSet(512) order was [six, four, five, seven, nine, zero, ten, eight, three, one, two] HashSet(1024) order was [six, five, nine, eight, two, four, seven, zero, ten, three, one] HashSet(2048) order was [eight, seven, zero, six, five, nine, two, four, ten, three, one] HashSet(4096) order was [eight, seven, zero, six, five, nine, three, one, two, four, ten] HashSet(8192) order was [eight, seven, zero, six, nine, four, five, three, one, two, ten] HashSet(16384) order was [eight, zero, nine, five, three, two, ten, seven, six, four, one] HashSet(32768) order was [zero, six, one, eight, nine, five, three, two, ten, seven, four] HashSet(65536) order was [zero, eight, five, seven, four, six, one, nine, three, two, ten] HashSet(131072) order was [nine, zero, eight, five, seven, four, six, one, three, two, ten] HashSet(262144) order was [nine, five, seven, six, one, two, ten, zero, eight, four, three] HashSet(524288) order was [nine, seven, six, one, two, ten, zero, four, five, eight, three] HashSet(1048576) order was [nine, seven, six, one, two, ten, four, eight, three, zero, five] HashSet(2097152) order was [seven, six, one, two, ten, five, nine, four, eight, three, zero] HashSet(4194304) order was [six, one, two, ten, eight, seven, five, nine, four, three, zero] HashSet(8388608) order was [six, one, two, ten, eight, five, nine, four, zero, seven, three] HashSet(16777216) order was [six, one, two, ten, five, nine, four, zero, eight, seven, three] HashSet(33554432) order was [six, one, two, ten, five, nine, four, zero, seven, three, eight]

As you can see almost every initial capacity has a different order (even for a relatively small number of elements)

Single note: with a capacity of 1 and a large load factor (to prevent it resizing the capacity), the HashSet becomes a linked list which shows object in reverse order. i.e. as there is 100% collisions.

As @Alex Zhang, notes, if you have small positive numbers (Byte, Short, Integer, Long) and you allow the capacity to grow naturally, you will get those numbers in order. However if you vary this a little the pattern breaks up.

Collection<Integer> col = Arrays.asList(-1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000, 1000000); for (int i = 1; i < 5000000; i *= 2) { Set<Integer> set = new HashSet<Integer>(i, 100f); set.addAll(col); System.out.println("HashSet(" + i + ") " + set); }prints

HashSet(1) [1000000, 100000, 10000, 1000, 100, 10, 1, -1] HashSet(2) [1000000, 100000, 100, 10, 10000, 1000, 1, -1] HashSet(4) [10000, 1000, 1, 1000000, 100000, 100, 10, -1] HashSet(8) [1000, 1, 1000000, 100, 10, 10000, 100000, -1] HashSet(16) [1000, 1, 100, 1000000, 10, 10000, 100000, -1] HashSet(32) [1, 100, 10, 10000, 1000, 1000000, 100000, -1] HashSet(64) [1, 10, 1000, 1000000, 100000, -1, 100, 10000] HashSet(128) [1, 10, 1000000, -1, 10000, 1000, 100000, 100] HashSet(256) [1, 10, 1000000, -1, 10000, 100, 1000, 100000] HashSet(512) [1, 10, 1000000, 100, -1, 10000, 1000, 100000] HashSet(1024) [1, 10, 1000000, 100, 10000, 100000, -1, 1000] HashSet(2048) [1, 10, 1000000, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000, -1] HashSet(4096) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 1000000, 100000, -1] HashSet(8192) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 1000000, -1, 100000] HashSet(16384) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 100000, 10000, 1000000, -1] HashSet(32768) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 100000, 10000, 1000000, -1] HashSet(65536) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000, 1000000, -1] HashSet(131072) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, -1, 100000, 1000000] HashSet(262144) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, -1, 100000, 1000000] HashSet(524288) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, -1, 100000, 1000000] HashSet(1048576) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, -1, 100000, 1000000] HashSet(2097152) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000, 1000000, -1] HashSet(4194304) [1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000, 1000000, -1]

*From http://vanillajava.blogspot.com/2011/09/order-of-elements-in-hash-collection.html*

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