Project Silk for all your HTML web application needs
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A colleague of mine pointed out this white paper article that Microsoft have kindly put together, which appears to be a full overview on how to construct a web site in this day and age.
"Guidance for building cross-browser web applications with a focus on client-side interactivity. These applications take advantage of the latest web standards like HTML5, CSS3 and ECMAScript 5 along with modern web technologies such as jQuery, Internet Explorer 9, and ASP.NET MVC3"
You can also download it all in pdf format from the following link