Setting up a Kubernetes Cluster Across Two Virtualized CentOS Nodes

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Setting up a Kubernetes Cluster Across Two Virtualized CentOS Nodes

Bring containers to CentOS nodes with this guide to setting up Kubernetes clusters, including fixes errors that crop up along the way.

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I tried installing Kubernetes from scratch on Fedora Atomic hosts, but I couldn't get it working. I captured the steps I went through up until the point where I got stuck, but I was thinking that there has to be an easier way. Then, I found kubeadm and successfully used that to get a cluster up and running on CentOS instead.

If you're interested in the steps for my first failed attempt, then they're below. Otherwise, if you're interested in the steps (and issues and fixes) to get kubeadm set up on CentOS 7, skip down to Attempt 2.

(Failed) Attempt 1: Setting Up Kubernetes From Scratch on Fedora Atomic

I followed the instructions here, but instead of 4 Atomic hosts, I created 2 Fedora Atomic VMs on Proxmox. On the first of the VMs, I started a local Docker Registry container:

sudo docker create -p 5000:5000 \ -v /var/lib/local-registry:/var/lib/registry \ -e REGISTRY_STORAGE_FILESYSTEM_ROOTDIRECTORY=/var/lib/registry \ -e REGISTRY_PROXY_REMOTEURL=https://registry-1.docker.io \ --name=local-registry registry:2

Next, I followed the steps to change the SELinux context on the directory that Docker created for our persistence volume and created a systemd unit file to configure a systemd service to start the registry at startup.

Next up, edit the /etc/etcd/etcd.conf file for the ports to listen on:


The first line replaced this original line:


And the second replaced:


After following the steps to generate the keys, I had to create the /etc/kubernetes/certs, and then I copied the generated files below ./pki/, but apart from ca.crt, the other two files were named server.crt and server.key, so I renamed them to match the instructions when copying to the destination:

sudo cp pki/ca.crt /etc/kubernetes/certs
sudo cp pki/issued/server.crt /etc/kubernetes/certs/kubernetes-master.crt
sudo cp pki/private/server.key /etc/kubernetes/certs/kubernetes-master.key

I followed the steps up to the point of starting the Kuberetes service, then got an error:

$ sudo systemctl start etcd kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler

Job for kube-apiserver.service failed because the control process exited with error code.

See "systemctlstatus kube-apiserver.service" and "journalctl-xe" for details.

Using journalctl -xe to take a look at the logs, I got a lot of:

reflector.go:201] k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/client/informers/informers_generated/externalversions/ /factory.go:70: Failed to list *v1.ReplicationController: Get ceVersion=0: dial tcp getsockopt: connection refused

This implies the API server is not running.

This is the point where I started reading around for help, but I started to ask, after I'd walked through all the manual steps to get this far and hadn't got it working yet, if there was a better/quicker way to setu p Kubernetes. Turns out there is: kubeadm.

Successful Attempt 2: Setting up a Kubernetes Cluster Using kubeadm on CentOS 7

Compared to the manual installation and configuration steps, kubeadm looks very attractive, as it does a lot of the work for you.

Following the instructions here, the first issue I ran into was this step, and this didn't work for me on CentOS 7:

sudo sysctl net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1

sysctl: cannot stat /proc/sys/net/bridge/bridge-nf-call-iptables: No such file or directory

I skipped this (not knowing if there's something comparable for CentOS) and continued on. Next, install Docker:

yum install -y docker

Enable at boot:

systemctl enable docker && systemctl start docker

Install kubelet, kubeadm, and kubectl (this section straight from the docs):

cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo [kubernetes] name=Kubernetes baseurl=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64 enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 repo_gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg EOF setenforce 0 yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

Next, use kubeadm to create a cluster. Reading forward in the instructions, to initialize the networking overlay with, for example flannel, you also need to pass options to init, so:

kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=

This gave me some errors about kubelet not yet running, so I missed the step above to enable and start kubelet:

[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[preflight] WARNING: kubelet service is not enabled, please run 'systemctl enable kubelet.service'
[preflight] WARNING: firewalld is active, please ensure ports [6443 10250] are open or your cluster may not function correctly
[preflight] WARNING: Running with swap on is not supported. Please disable swap or set kubelet's --fail-swap-on flag to false.

One more try:

systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

Then again:

kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=

It seems you can't run init more than once:

[preflight] Some fatal errors occurred:
 /etc/kubernetes/manifests is not empty
 /var/lib/kubelet is not empty
[preflight] If you know what you are doing, you can skip pre-flight checks with `--skip-preflight-checks`

Per the 'tear down' instructions:

kubeadm reset

Then once more time:

kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=

Next error:

[kubelet-check] It seems like the kubelet isn't running or healthy.
[kubelet-check] The HTTP call equal to 'curl -sSL http://localhost:10255/healthz/syncloop' failed with error: Get http://localhost:10255/healthz/syncloop: dial tcp [::1]:10255: getsockopt: connection refused.

Checking 'systemctl status kubelet' shows it failed on startup because swap was still enabled:

kubelet[14829]: error: failed to run Kubelet: Running with swap on is not supported,  please disable swap! or set --fail-swap

To disable swap (per answers to this question):

swapoff -a

And then I edited /etc/fstab to remove the /dev/mapper/centos-swap line, and then rebooted.

Once more:

kubeadm reset
kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=

To address the error about opening ports:

[preflight] WARNING: firewalld is active, please ensure ports [6443 10250] are open or your cluster may not function correctly

I opened up the ports with new rules:

sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=6443/tcp --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=10250/tcp --permanent

At this point, the cluster starts initializing, and I get this message for several minutes while it's downloading/initializing:

[init] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as Static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[init] This often takes around a minute; or longer if the control plane images have to be pulled.

I waited for several minutes, but it didn't seem to do anything. Looking in 'journalctl -xeu kubelet' there's many 'connection refused' errors repeating over and over: dial tcp getsockopt: connection refused dial tcp getsockopt: connection refused dial tcp getsockopt: connection refused dial tcp getsockopt: connection refused
n0a7dd195e7cb.14ebbc48a9463585: dial tcp getsockopt: connection refused' (may retry after sleeping)

Searching for anything similar I came up with these, which have similar errors and symptoms:

The issue that helped for me, though, was this one, wherein one of the steps to recreate there is a comment:

# edit /etc/selinux/config and set SELINUX=disabled

The kubeadm install steps do state:

"Disabling SELinux by running setenforce 0 is required to allow containers to access the host filesystem"

But in the steps, it only mentions running setenforce 0, which I'm not sure is the same as editing /etc/selinux/config. I edited the file, set SELINUX=disabled, rebooted, fired up kubeadm init again, and this time we're in luck!

[init] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the contr
ol plane as Static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"

[init] This often takes around a minute; or longer if the control plane images have to be pulled.

[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 43.002301 seconds

[uploadconfig] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace

[markmaster] Will mark node unknown0a7dd195e7cb as master by adding a label and a taint

[markmaster] Master unknown0a7dd195e7cb tainted and labelled with key/value: node-role.kubernetes.io/master=""

[bootstraptoken] Using token: xyz

[bootstraptoken] Configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials

[bootstraptoken] Configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token

[bootstraptoken] Creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace

[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-dns

[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run (as a regular user):

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube

sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config

sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.

Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:


You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node

as root:

kubeadm join --token xyz --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:abc


Following the next steps in the instructions, I set up the config for my regular user:

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

And then, continuing the steps, I added the networking config for flannel:

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/v0.8.0/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml 
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/v0.8.0/Documentation/kube-flannel-rbac.yml

Checking the running pods to confirm we're up and running:

[kev@unknown0A7DD195E7CB ~]$ kubectl get pods -all-namespaces

Now we're looking good!

The last step was adding an additional node and joining the cluster. I repeated all the steps up until that, but instead of kubeadm init, run the kubeadm join command, passing the token and has values.

Back on the master node, running:

[kev@unknown0A7DD195E7CB ~]$ kubectl get nodes

A few more seconds later:

[kev@unknown0A7DD195E7CB ~]$ kubectl get nodes

A 2-node Kubernetes cluster, one master and one worker, ready for running some containers!

centos 7, cloud, kubernetes cluster, tutorial

Published at DZone with permission of Kevin Hooke , DZone MVB. See the original article here.

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