Significant Software Development Developments of 2017
Significant Software Development Developments of 2017
2017 saw a number of significant developments in the world of software development, so let's look back at the areas that felt the most impact.
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This post is my personal and opinionated assessment of some of the most significant developments related to software development in 2017. This is my eleventh year for this annual post and my previous years' assessments are available for 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007. As with these previous years' assessments, this assessment of 2017's major developments in software development are obviously biased, opinionated, and limited to my perspective.
I think it important to re-emphasize that although this is an opinion-heavy post, the opinions are not on whether a particular language, framework, or tool is "best" or "worst." Rather, the opinions come in when deciding which of these frameworks, languages, or tools had the biggest developments of the year.
I could, for example, decide that some language I hated had a big year and talk about its significant accomplishments of the year even if I loathe the language. Last year, at least one reader confused my listing of languages as an endorsement of that being a better language, but this post is not that at all. Instead, this is a post of significant developments during 2017 in the software development world that I'm aware of. I obviously cannot be aware of every major software development happening in 2017 and welcome any feedback about major developments of 2017 in the world of software development.
One of the many challenges of writing a post such as this is that many of the subjects overlap significantly and it can be difficult to separate them and distinguish them. For example, the Internet of Things (IoT), Edge Computing, Cloud Computing, Big Data, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Software Security are all closely related and overlap to a degree.
The Technology Preview of Kotlin/Native was announced in 2017. The kotlin-native GitHub page describes Kotlin/Native as "an LLVM backend for the Kotlin compiler, runtime implementation, and native code generation facility using the LLVM toolchain" that is "primarily designed to allow compilation for platforms where virtual machines are not desirable or possible (such as iOS or embedded targets), or where a developer is willing to produce a reasonably-sized self-contained program without the need to ship an additional execution runtime."
Perhaps the biggest news for Kotlin in 2017 was its adoption as an officially supported program language for developing Android applications. The Kotlin Blog post "Kotlin on Android. Now official" opens with, "Today, at the Google I/O keynote, the Android team announced first-class support for Kotlin." The Kotlin on Android FAQ states that "Kotlin is fully supported in Android Studio 3.0 and higher." The 2017 4th Quarter Realm Report predicts that "2018 will be the year of Kotlin" and that Kotlin will overtake Java as primary Android development language by December 2018.
Spring Framework 5 support for Kotlin was also announced in 2017. Wired features an article this year titled "Kotlin: the Upstart Coding Language Conquering Silicon Valley" and the Heroku Blog features a post "On the Rise of Kotlin". There are now multiple books available on Kotlin, most with publication dates in 2017. The Tiobe Index's December 2017 edition states, "The programming languages Kotlin and C seem to be the only candidates to become programming language of the year 2017" (Tiobe's programming language of the year is the "programming language that has the highest rise in ratings in a year"). Gabriela Motroc has published five proofs of "why Kotlin deserves to become the programming language of the year."
I've been a professional software developer long enough now to have seen many trends come and go, come again and go again. Throughout this time, there has been a seemingly constant effort to reduce the amount of code that needs to be written and maintained. We have come along way in many respects, but there is still a lot of custom code that is hand-written and much of it is redundant. Recently (and especially in 2017), the terms "low-code", "no-code", and "citizen developer" have become popular in this constant search for software development's holy grail.
Edward Hadley's "Low-Code Development Platforms Address Soaring Application Needs" explains the renewed recent interest in low-code and no-code solutions. He writes, "While the demand for custom applications has never been higher, traditional development approaches simply can’t keep pace. According to a statistic cited by Gartner, through 2021, market demand for app development will grow at least five times faster than IT capacity to deliver it." He adds, "The inherent value of a low-code development platform is that it brings IT and the business together."
It is postulated in The Atlantic article "The Coming Software Apocalypse" looks at the advantages of no-code/low-code/citizen developers from a different perspective. A central premise of this article is that many of the current and impending problems associated with software are due to general programmers not understanding well enough the problems they are trying to solve with code. Developers must focus on the instructions to the machine via code more than on the problem being solved. Nancy Leveson is quoted as saying, "The problem is that software engineers don't understand the problem they're trying to solve, and don't care to." She adds that the real problem is not being able to cover all the necessary requirements to be coded to in a manageable way. Bret Victor is quoted as saying, "I'm not sure that programming has to exist at all. Or at least software developers." He maintains that tools should be created to remove the need to work directly with code to solve the problems.
A paper by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a title starting with "Will humans even write code in 2040...?" starts its opening "Abstract" section with this statement, "Programming trends suggest that software development will undergo a radical change in the future: the combination of machine learning, artificial intelligence, natural language processing, and code generation technologies will improve in such a way that machines, instead of humans, will write most of their own code by 2040." One of the paper's authors (Jay Jay Billings) states in "Good code generators will be the most helpful and useful tools for coding by 2040" that he believes that "humans will still write code in 2040," but that "most code that we write now - what we might consider 'everyday code' - will be written with code generators that are fed by machine learning, AI, and natural language processing."
There are high expectations for blockchain. In "Blockchain: An Introduction," Arun Pandey writes that blockchain "helps transactions to have public witnesses and hence minimize cyber crime and fraud" and "serves as an open, distributed ledger to record transactions between two parties in a verifiable and lasting way." The article "What is Blockchain Technology? A Step-by-Step Guide For Beginners" states that "blockchain is an undeniably ingenious invention" that has "created the backbone of a new type of internet ... by allowing digital information to be distributed but not copied." Gabriela Motroc has asked "eight blockchain influencers" if "blockchain [can] transform the world?"
6. Machine Learning (ML)/Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Big Data
The authors of the Harvard Business Review July 2017 cover story "The Business of Artificial Intelligence" write, "The most important general-purpose technology of our era is artificial intelligence, particularly machine learning (ML) - that is, the machine's ability to keep improving its performance without humans having to explain exactly how to accomplish all the tasks it's given." They cover ways that AI has already helped business, but also look at unrealistic expectations for AI.
Some interesting uses of machine learning are covered in online resources such as Machine Learning for Humans, How artificial intelligence and machine learning will disrupt legal space, Machine learning will not replace people in all jobs: Study, Reimagine Business for Machine Learning, and Falling into Machine Learning.
In "2017: The Year AI Floated into the Cloud," Jackie Snow writes that in 2017 "tech firms opened a new front in the battle to win users over in the cloud: the large-scale introduction of cloud-based AI." Computer Weekly has published its "Top 10 Artificial Intelligence Stories of 2017" and Zach Emmanuel writes, "Artificial intelligence (AI) has continued to gain prominence in 2017 as one of the biggest upcoming technologies."
Big Data remains "big" in terms of popularity. Alex Woodie's post "10 Key Big Data Trends That Drove 2017" details "10 of the biggest takeaways for the big data year that was 2017." The post "Big Data: Main Developments in 2017 and Key Trends in 2018" "considers what happened in Big Data" in 2017. A DZone post details select IT Executives' responses related to their "biggest surprises about big data and analytics" in 2017. The post "Top 10 Big Data Blogs of 2017" looks at SyncSort's top ten blog posts of Big Data in 2017, including the post "Just How Big is Big Data, Anyway?" The article "The rise of big data in 2017: Here are the top emerging trends" begins with, "We saw the rise of big data in 2017 and the trend will continue to gain speed. Accessing and preserving big data is now a common practice at almost all organizations."
One of the "big" stories in the world of Big Data is the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). According to its web page, the GDPR "was designed to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all EU citizens' data privacy and to reshape the way organizations across the region approach data privacy." That page states that it's effective as of 25 May 2018 and "at which time those organizations in non-compliance will face heavy fines." The "key changes" of the GDPR can be found in "GDPR Key Changes."
I might have "cheated" a bit to include artificial intelligence, machine learning, and Big Data all in one item, but they are closely related in many scenarios. Posts and articles talking about these together include "How Big Data Is Empowering AI and Machine Learning?", "Why AI, Machine Learning And Big Data Really Matter To B2B Companies," "Artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning and beyond," and "How Big Data Is Empowering AI and Machine Learning at Scale."
Containers continued to be a popular topic in 2017.
The Docker Blog has collected its Top Five Blogs of 2017 that include the posts Build and Run Your First Docker Windows Server Container and Exciting new things for Docker with Windows Server 1709. That blog also features a post Top 5 Docker Customer Success Stories in 2017.
2017 was an especially big year for Kubernetes. Christopher Tozzi writes in "Kubernetes’ Big Triumph of 2017: Killing Docker" that "the biggest change of 2017 in the world of containers" is "Kubernetes’s rise to dominance." He adds, "Kubernetes has taken the container ecosystem by storm. It has basically become the new Docker, in the sense that it is the name that now dominates most conversations about container technology." The Docker page "Adding Kubernetes support in the Docker platform" discusses Kubernetes integration with Docker in greater detail.
Chris Short has written a post, Docker, Inc is Dead, in which he opens with the sentence, "To say that Docker had a very rough 2017 is an understatement." He adds, "People will look back on 2017 as the year Docker, a great piece of software, was completely ruined by bad business practices leading to its end in 2018."
The term "DevOps" seems to be written about and talked about more than ever. Everything I wrote about DevOps in last year's post remains true but to an even (much) larger degree than last year: "Although the DevOps concept has been around for a while now, it's gained popularity with the 'suits' (management) and the term is thrown around in all types of contexts. Software product vendors emphasize how their products continue to DevOps and software development requisitions and job listings are filled with references to experience with DevOps."
In my perusal of blog post titles and headlines each day, I see numerous references to DevOps. In just this week, posts on DevOps that have crossed my screen include DevOps remains a competitive advantage, Kubernetes news, DevOps developments dominate 2017 for IT shops, and Top 10 DevOps articles of 2017: The Enterprisers Project. Two (of many) examples of DevOps being embraced by the highest levels of management is the existence of the Forbes article "10 Top DevOps Barriers And Trends Forecasted For 2018," "2017 Brought More Open Standards for DevOps," and the DZone questions and answers format "Concerns With DevOps."
DZone has published "2017 DevOps Surprises" that contains observations from "IT executives" regarding the "biggest surprises about DevOps" in 2017. Forrester called 2017 the year of DevOps and predicts 2018 to be "The Year of Enterprise DevOps."
I cannot think of a software development related term that I heard or read more about during 2017 than "microservices." The term has been used for several years now, but 2017 seemed to see more use of it than ever. The Register recently featured an article called "Microservices 101" that introduces microservices for those who may not have heard much about them yet. Vendors are pushing microservices, which always means hearing a lot about them. "The State of Microservices Survey 2017 - Eight trends you need to know" provides observations from a survey of developers using microservices.
2. Cloud Computing/Internet of Things (IoT)
Cloud computing and the Internet of Things (IoT) continue to become more pervasive in our lives as consumers and therefore, not surprisingly, as software developers.
Recent articles on cloud computing in 2017 include "The Cloud in 2017: Amazon Web Services shows no signs of slowing during the year of Kubernetes," "2017 Cloud Computing and Data Center Industry Review and Conclusion," "8 resources for understanding the open source cloud in 2017" ("2017 was a big year for open source cloud computing tools"), "Cloud computing: Getting bigger but more complicated too," "Top cloud providers dominate headlines in 2017," "2017 cloud computing headlines show upside, hurdles for CIOs," "The top 10 Thoughts on Cloud articles of 2017," "Cloud Computing - What’s The Big Deal," "10 Benefits and Advantages of Cloud Computing," and forward-looking "5 cloud computing trends for 2018".
Sierra Wireless has published a post called "Internet of Things Year in Review: 2017." Other recent articles on the Internet of Things include "The internet of things: Why it matters," "Rise of the machines: who is the ‘internet of things’ good for?," and "2017 Internet Of Things (IoT) Intelligence Update,"
There have also been recent articles with ominous tones regarding internet of things such as "The Internet of Things' Dangerous Future," "The Internet of Things Needs a Code of Ethics," "Is This a Setback for the Internet of Things?," and "The dark side of the internet of things". Securing devices connected to each other via the internet of things is going to remain (or become in some cases) a high priority.
1. Software Security and Software Outages
I'd love to not have software security issues and software outages not top my list, but 2017 seemed to see even more negative incidences related to software security and software availability than ever. Michael Novinson writes that "data breach activity continued to skyrocket in the first 11 months of 2017, with the numbers of breaches jumping to 1,202, according to a report from the Identity Theft Resource Center and CyberScout," which is "up 10 percent from the 1,093 breaches recording during the entirety of 2016." John Zorabedian writes that 2017 "featured daily news about cyber attacks, data breaches, and software vulnerabilities." He adds, "If it feels like our cybersecurity challenges grow bigger and more complex, year after year, it's more than just a perception."
Here is a list of headlines from 2017 that highlight this increased frequency.
- The Coming Software Apocalypse
- The 10 Biggest Data Breaches Of 2017
- The Biggest Cybersecurity Stories, Breaches and AppSec Lessons of 2017
- What you need to know about the WannaCry Ransomware
- Alteryx data leak exposes 123 million households: What you need to know
- Yahoo's 2013 breach proves you should be tracking data breaches (estimated affected number of users rises to 3 billion)
- Equifax Breach
- What you need to know about the new ransomware that's hit the US (Petya/NotPetya)
- Conditions behind cyberattack may be hard to mimic
- Hack Brief: Dangerous 'Fireball' Adware Infects a Quarter Billion PCs
- The Latest Data Breach Is in Sweden
The following did not make my top 10, but nevertheless saw major developments in 2017. Many of these items would likely make a different developer's top ten. There is no significance implied by the order of these listed entries in the "Honorable Mention" section.
"Serverless"/Function as a Service (FaaS)
I first started paying attention to the term "serverless" when the Fn Project was announced at JavaOne 2017 and especially after reading 8 Reasons why we built the Fn Project. The Martin Fowler article "Serverless Architectures" introduces these concepts well and the InfoQ article "FaaS, PaaS, and the Benefits of the Serverless Architecture" looks at the benefits of using these and talks about "nanoservices." Matt Watson's "What Is Function-as-a-Service? Serverless Architectures Are Here!" is also a good introduction to this topic and when FaaS and "serverless" might make the most sense to use.
Often closely associated with Internet of Things (IoT), edge computing is described in GE Digital's What is Edge Computing? blog article as "computing infrastructure that exists close to the sources of data ... [on] devices [that] typically reside away from the centralize computing available in the cloud." The Wikipedia entry on edge computing adds, "Edge computing pushes applications, data and computing power (services) away from centralized points to the logical extremes of a network." The previously cited GE Digital article also differentiates Edge Computing versus Fog Computing and Edge Computing versus Cloud Computing.
Quantum Computing and Microsoft Q#
The concept of quantum computing is nothing new, but Microsoft's series of announcements of its Microsoft Quantum Development Kit Preview in the fourth quarter of 2017 seem to me to be a very significant development for quantum computing in 2017 because it feels like an early step toward taking quantum computing mainstream. The Microsoft Quantum Development Kit includes Microsoft's Q# programming language (including standard library and compiler) along with a "local quantum machine simulator" and a Q#-oriented extension for Visual Studio.
A Nature.com post in early 2017 titled "Quantum computers ready to leap out of the lab in 2017" states, "Quantum computing has long seemed like one of those technologies that are 20 years away, and always will be. But 2017 could be the year that the field sheds its research-only image."
A nice introduction to quantum computing (at least as far as the little I understand about the subject allows me to detect) can be found in the aptly named "An Introduction To Quantum Computing." Microsoft has also provided an introduction in "What is quantum computing?" Forbes has published "15 Things Everyone Should Know About Quantum Computing."
An editorial in The Guardian calls the "the great power contest to develop a quantum computer" the "space race of our times." The following are some events and announcements related to quantum computing that occurred in 2017:
- Japan joins quantum space race with microsatellite demo (SOCRATES)
- IBM Raises the Bar with a 50-Qubit Quantum Computer
- IBM Making Progress in Quantum Computing With Q Systems (see also IBM's "What is quantum computing?")
- IBM's processor pushes quantum computing closer to 'supremacy'
- Practical Quantum Computers
In "Mozilla Made the Web Better for Developers in 2017," Dustin Driver writes that "by the end of 2017, all the major browsers shipped support for WebAssembly, making the web a speedier and more robust place for everyone." The article "WebAssembly Will Finally Let You Run High-Performance Applications in Your Browser" discusses the history behind WebAssembly and "Introduction to WebAssembly: why should we care?" provides a nice introduction to WebAssembly, what it is, and why it will change web development and the user experience on the web.
Reactive System/Reactive Programming
The Reactive Manifesto was published in September 2014 and the reactive design concept seems to have grown in popularity each year since, especially becoming well-known in 2016 and 2017. The Red Hat Developers Blog features a post "5 Things to Know About Reactive Programming" in which Clement Escoffier defines "reactive programming" as "a development model structured around asynchronous data streams." Escoffier emphasizes that reactive programming is not the same thing as a reactive system: "Using reactive programming does not transform your system into a Reactive System. Reactive Systems are the next level."
TypeScript continued to see increased adoption in 2017. Mary Branscombe's post "Why TypeScript Is Growing More Popular" explains some of the reasons for this rise in popularity. Microsoft Technical Fellow and TypeScript developer Anders Hejlsberg is quoted in this article, "There's no doubt the partnership that we have with the Angular team has helped drive the numbers. ... Lots of other frameworks are using TypeScript at this point. Aurelia, Ionic, NativeScript are all, in one way or another, involved in TypeScript. The Ember framework, the Glimmer framework that was just released is written in TypeScript."
- TypeScript 2.6: (including --strictFunctionTypes)
- TypeScript 2.5 (including extract function and extract method refactorings)
- TypeScript 2.4 (including dynamic import(), string enum initializers, and weak types)
- TypeScript 2.3 (including --strict)
- TypeScript 2.2 (including object type and new.target)
Angular 5 (pentagonal-donut) was released in 2017 and "focuses on making Angular smaller, faster, and easier to use," but not everyone is pleased. Angular 5.1 has also been released in 2017 and has beta 5.2 versions.
JAX's "Year in review: Angular in 2017" provides a more detailed month-by-month review of Angular-related news in 2017.
Node.js remains popular in 2017 as proven by posts such as "Node.js State of the Union 2017," "This is what Node.js is used for in 2017 - Survey Results," and "The Node.js Community was amazing in 2017!"
Mark Little of Red Hat is quoted in "Java: 2017 Surprises and 2018 Predictions", "This has been a big year for Java, with several significant developments contributing to the ongoing evolution of the technology. The most notable event in 2017 was Oracle’s announcement to more fully open up Java EE by moving it to an open source foundation — and the subsequent announcement that it had selected the Eclipse Foundation to host the initiative as a top-level project called Eclipse Enterprise for Java (EE4J)."
JDK 9 was released in 2017 with its much anticipated and long-awaited introduction of built-in platform modularity. There was a surprising amount of drama surrounding the naming of future versions of Java SE as well, but it seems that "JDK 10" has won out. Oracle has also announced changes the releases of versions of Java and differentiated between the "Oracle JDK ("commercial long-term support offering" intended for "commercial and support customers") and OpenJDK (which will include access to "previously commercial features such as Java Flight Recorder").
IBM open sourced its JVM in 2017 and it is called OpenJ9. Another big deal to the Java community in 2017 was the publication of the Third Edition of Effective Java, the first edition of this book covering very significant Java versions 7, 8, and 9. Java Code Geeks has posted "Top 10 JavaCodeGeeks posts for 2017" that presents "a compilation with the most popular posts for this year" including "JDK 9 is Feature Complete" and "JDK 9 is the End of the Road for Some Features."
See JAX's Year in Review: Java in 2017 for a detailed analysis of events in the world of Java that occurred in 2017. Ben Evans's article "Looking Forward to Java in 2018" looks briefly at 2017 for Java and then looks at what the future may hold for Java.
Guy Daher, a self-described "Swift developer evangelist," looks at What Stats and Surveys are saying about Swift in 2017.
Python's popularity continues to increase and it's one of the most-used programming languages available. The State of the Octoverse 2017 states that "Python replaced Java as the second-most popular language on GitHub, with 40 percent more pull requests opened this year than last." Python remains the fourth-most searched for programming language on the Tiobe Index. Python also topped IEEE Spectrum's The 2017 Top Programming Languages (July 2017). As evidence of Python's growing familiarity, there is word that "Microsoft Considers Adding Python as an Official Scripting Language to Excel."
The first release of Scala Native (0.1) was announced in 2017 and its GitHub page states, "Your favorite language gets closer to bare metal." The main Scala Native page describes Scala Native as "an optimizing ahead-of-time compiler and lightweight managed runtime designed specifically for Scala."
The Rust programming language continues to grow in popularity in 2017. The Rust Programming Language Blog features a post "Rust in 2017: what we achieved" that covers the highlights of achieving Rust goals in 2017 related to a "single overarching theme" of "increasing productivity, especially for newcomers to Rust." Jimmy Cuadra posted in 2017 "The highs and lows of Rust (2017)." The blog posts "Entering the Quantum Era - How Firefox got fast again and where it’s going to get faster" and "Mozilla Made the Web Better for Developers in 2017" discuss how Rust was an integral part of making the Firefox web browser faster.
The "Go" programming language continues to gain in popularity in the development community. In early 2017, Mariano Gappa wrote about Movio Cinema's Red Squad's adoption of Go. Around the same time, Keval Patel wrote "Why should you learn Go?" IEEE Spectrum lists Go in its "Top Ten Languages for the typical Spectrum reader" and InfoWorld's Paul Krill wrote "Go language soars to new heights in popularity."
In 2017, JetBrains announced the name for its Go IDE: GoLand. GoLand is a commercial (not open source) IDE that "extends the IntelliJ platform with the coding assistance and tool integrations specific for the Go language."
C++17 (also known as C++1z) became "feature complete" in 2017. Bartlomiej Filipek has provided an overview of C++17 features in the appropriately named post "C++ 17 Features" and has posted "7 Features of C++17 that Will Simplify Your Code." The document "Changes between C++14 and C++17 DIS" covers "all the major changes that have been applied to the C++ working draft since the publication of C++14, up to the publication of the C++17..."
The JetBrains Developer Ecosystem Survey 2017 for C++ found that nearly two-thirds of the respondents currently use C++11 and a little more than one-third of the respondents currently use C++14 (respondents must have been allowed to indicate the current use of more than one version of C++).
Josh Long, the Spring Developer Advocate at Pivotal, has written the post "This Year in Spring - 2017" in which he reviews "this very exciting year in Spring and its ecosystem." Some of the Spring-related highlights of 2017 covered in that post include the release of Spring Framework 5.0, release of Pivotal Cloud Foundry (PCF) 2.0, introduction of Spring Cloud Function, and Project riff ("a function service designed to run on Kubernetes").
Spring Framework 5 requires Java 8, includes support for Kotlin, and introduces a reactive programming model based on the Reactor project implementation of the Reactive Streams Specification for the JVM.
JUnit 5 was released in 2017 (General Availability in September and 5.1.0-M1 in November). JUnit 5 breaks JUnit tradition and is composed of three sub-projects (JUnit Platform, JUnit Jupiter, and JUnit Vintage). JUnit 5 requires Java 8 to run, but can be used to test Java code built against an older version of Java. Posts written in 2017 regarding JUnit 5 include Embrace JUnit 5, The Basics of JUnit 5 - A Preview (and A Look at JUnit 5's Core Features & New Testing Functionality), The five coolest new features of JUnit 5, What's New In JUnit 5?, and Seven Reasons Why You Should Start Using JUnit 5 Today.
I don't know enough about the software testing world to talk about general software testing developments of 2017, but Cynthia Dunlop's post "The Top Software Testing News of 2017" seems like a good place to start for such an overview. Dunlop opens the article, "It's not every year that 'software testing' hits the headlines across publications such as Forbes, Fortune, and Reuters. But these are no ordinary times for software testing. Agile and DevOps, which are designed to disrupt development, have also thrown software testing into turmoil—causing a shake-up in the software testing tools industry. This is evident by the string of software testing tool company acquisitions, spin-merges, and funding rounds that ended up dominating software testing news throughout 2017." One of the stories referenced and briefly described in that article is the InfoQ article "JUnit 5 is Released."
Munich Switches from Linux Back to Windows
In 2003, the city of Munich decided to move from Windows to Linux. This was an exciting time for Linux advocates in particular, but also for open source advocates in general. Unfortunately, there started to be some bad news coming out of this transition as early as 2004 and it was announced in 2017 that Munich would be returning to Windows. The reactions to this differ depending on who you ask (see "Munich Is Ditching Linux For Purely Political Reasons" and "Munich ends its long-running love affair with Linux"), but there's no doubt this move is a disappointment to the many open source and Linux users who thought the Munich "experiment" would lead the way for other world cities.
The switch from Linux back to Windows is likely far less devastating to Linux and open source adoption in 2017 than it would have been in te 2003-2004 timeframe. Open source and Linux are both well entrenched now and I don't see them losing ground in the near future. However, this is still a big enough story to make my "honorable mention" section and is the #2 story highlighted in the post "Biggest Linux News Stories of 2017."
This post looked at some of the developments in software development that occurred in 2017. I undoubtedly missed some things and missed some developments associated even with some of the listed items. This post will be updated in the coming days and weeks as I remember some of these things or as feedback points out some of these missing items.
Published at DZone with permission of Dustin Marx , DZone MVB. See the original article here.
Opinions expressed by DZone contributors are their own.