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Solitary Unit Test

Originally found in Working Effectively with Unit Tests

In Java it’s common to unit test at the class level. The Foo class will have an associated FooTestsclass. Solitary Unit Tests follow two additional constraints:

  1. Never cross boundaries
  2. The Class Under Test should be the only concrete class found in a test.
Never cross boundaries is a fairly simple, yet controversial piece of advice. In 2004, Bill Caputo wrote about this advice, and defined a boundary as: ”...a database, a queue, another system...”. The advice is simple: accessing a database, network, or file system significantly increases the the time it takes to run a test. When the aggregate execution time impacts a developer’s decision to run the test suite, the effectiveness of the entire team is at risk. A test suite that isn’t run regularly is likely to have negative-ROI.

In the same entry, Bill also defines a boundary as: ”... or even an ordinary class if that class is ‘outside’ the area your [sic] trying to work with or are responsible for”. Bill’s recommendation is a good one, but I find it too vague. Bill’s statement fails to give concrete advice on where to draw the line. My second constraint is a concrete (and admittedly restrictive) version of Bill’s recommendation. The concept of constraining a unit test such that ‘the Class Under Test should be the only concrete class found in a test’ sounds extreme, but it’s actually not that drastic if you assume a few things.
  1. You’re using a framework that allows you to easily stub most concrete classes
  2. This constraint does not apply to any primitive or class that has a literal (e.g. int, Integer, String, etc)
  3. You’re using some type of automated refactoring tool.
There are pros and cons to this approach, both of which are examined in Working Effectively with Unit Tests.

Solitary Unit Test can be defined as:
Solitary Unit Testing is an activity by which methods of a class or functions of a namespace are tested to determine if they are fit for use. The tests used to determine if a class or namespace is functional should isolate the class or namespace under test by stubbing all collaboration with additional classes and namespaces.

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