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Create a CRUD REST API Using Spring Boot 2, Hibernate 5, JPA, and MySQL

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Create a CRUD REST API Using Spring Boot 2, Hibernate 5, JPA, and MySQL

Let's take a look at a tutorial that explains how to develop a step-by-step CRUD RESTful API using Spring Boot 2, Hibernate 5, JPA, and MySQL as a database.

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In this tutorial, we will develop a step-by-step CRUD RESTFul API using Spring Boot 2, Hibernate 5, JPA, and MySQL as a database.

We will build CRUD RESTFul APIs for a Simple Employee Management System. We will be using an Employee entity/model as a resource in this example.

Let's get started by our objective, what we'll build

What We’ll Build

We will build a CRUD RESTFul API for a Simple Employee Management System using Spring Boot 2 JPA and MySQL. Following are five REST APIs (Controller handler methods) are created for Employee resource.

Tools and Technologies Used

  • Spring Boot — 2.0.4.RELEASE
  • JDK — 1.8 or later
  • Spring Framework — 5.0.8 RELEASE
  • Hibernate — 5.2.17.Final
  • JPA
  • Maven — 3.2+
  • IDE — Eclipse or Spring Tool Suite (STS)

Creating and Importing a Project

There are many ways to create a Spring Boot application. The simplest way is to use Spring Initializrat http://start.spring.io/, which is an online Spring Boot application generator. Look at the From the above diagram, we have specified the following details:

  • Generate: Maven Project
  • Java Version: 1.8 (Default)
  • Spring Boot:2.0.4
  • Group: net.guides.springboot2
  • Artifact: springboot2-jpa-crud-example
  • Name: springboot2-jpa-crud-example
  • Description: Rest API for a Simple Employee Management Application
  • Package Name : net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample
  • Packaging: jar (This is the default value)
  • Dependencies: Web, JPA, MySQL, DevTools

Once, all the details are entered, click on Generate Project button will generate a spring boot project and downloads it. Next, Unzip the downloaded zip file and import it into your favorite IDE.

Packaging Structure

The following is the packing structure of our Employee Management System:

The pom.xml File

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>net.guides.springboot2</groupId>
    <artifactId>springboot2-jpa-crud-example</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>

    <name>springboot2-jpa-crud-example</name>
    <description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.0.5.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>

    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
       </dependency>
       <dependency>
           <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
           <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
       </dependency>

       <dependency>
           <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
           <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
           <scope>runtime</scope>
       </dependency>
       <dependency>
           <groupId>mysql</groupId>
           <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
           <scope>runtime</scope>
       </dependency>
       <dependency>
           <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
           <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
           <scope>test</scope>
      </dependency>
    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <plugins>
             <plugin>
                 <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                 <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
     </build>
</project>
If you want to customize default logging and implement logging effectively in this tutorial — Spring Boot 2 Logging SLF4j Logback and LOG4j2 Example

Create JPA Entity — Employee.java

package net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.model;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;

@Entity
@Table(name = "employees")
public class Employee {

    private long id;
    private String firstName;
    private String lastName;
    private String emailId;

    public Employee() {

    }

    public Employee(String firstName, String lastName, String emailId) {
         this.firstName = firstName;
         this.lastName = lastName;
         this.emailId = emailId;
    }

    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
        public long getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    @Column(name = "first_name", nullable = false)
    public String getFirstName() {
        return firstName;
    }
    public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
        this.firstName = firstName;
    }

    @Column(name = "last_name", nullable = false)
    public String getLastName() {
        return lastName;
    }
    public void setLastName(String lastName) {
        this.lastName = lastName;
    }

    @Column(name = "email_address", nullable = false)
    public String getEmailId() {
        return emailId;
    }
    public void setEmailId(String emailId) {
        this.emailId = emailId;
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "Employee [id=" + id + ", firstName=" + firstName + ", lastName=" + lastName + ", emailId=" + emailId
       + "]";
    }

}
You can implement auditing effectively in this tutorial using Spring Data JPA Auditing with Spring Boot 2 and MySQL Example article

Create Spring Data Repository — EmployeeRepository.java

package net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.repository;

import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.model.Employee;

@Repository
public interface EmployeeRepository extends JpaRepository<Employee, Long>{

}

Create Spring Rest Controller — EmployeeController.java

package net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.controller;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import javax.validation.Valid;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.DeleteMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PutMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.exception.ResourceNotFoundException;
import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.model.Employee;
import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.repository.EmployeeRepository;

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/api/v1")
public class EmployeeController {
    @Autowired
    private EmployeeRepository employeeRepository;

    @GetMapping("/employees")
    public List<Employee> getAllEmployees() {
        return employeeRepository.findAll();
    }

    @GetMapping("/employees/{id}")
    public ResponseEntity<Employee> getEmployeeById(@PathVariable(value = "id") Long employeeId)
        throws ResourceNotFoundException {
        Employee employee = employeeRepository.findById(employeeId)
          .orElseThrow(() -> new ResourceNotFoundException("Employee not found for this id :: " + employeeId));
        return ResponseEntity.ok().body(employee);
    }

    @PostMapping("/employees")
    public Employee createEmployee(@Valid @RequestBody Employee employee) {
        return employeeRepository.save(employee);
    }

    @PutMapping("/employees/{id}")
    public ResponseEntity<Employee> updateEmployee(@PathVariable(value = "id") Long employeeId,
         @Valid @RequestBody Employee employeeDetails) throws ResourceNotFoundException {
        Employee employee = employeeRepository.findById(employeeId)
        .orElseThrow(() -> new ResourceNotFoundException("Employee not found for this id :: " + employeeId));

        employee.setEmailId(employeeDetails.getEmailId());
        employee.setLastName(employeeDetails.getLastName());
        employee.setFirstName(employeeDetails.getFirstName());
        final Employee updatedEmployee = employeeRepository.save(employee);
        return ResponseEntity.ok(updatedEmployee);
    }

    @DeleteMapping("/employees/{id}")
    public Map<String, Boolean> deleteEmployee(@PathVariable(value = "id") Long employeeId)
         throws ResourceNotFoundException {
        Employee employee = employeeRepository.findById(employeeId)
       .orElseThrow(() -> new ResourceNotFoundException("Employee not found for this id :: " + employeeId));

        employeeRepository.delete(employee);
        Map<String, Boolean> response = new HashMap<>();
        response.put("deleted", Boolean.TRUE);
        return response;
    }
}

Exception(Error) Handling for RESTful Services

Spring Boot provides a good default implementation for exception handling for RESTful Services. Let’s quickly look at the default Exception Handling features provided by Spring Boot.

Resource Not Present

Heres what happens when you fire a request to not resource found: http://localhost:8080/some-dummy-url

{
  "timestamp": 1512713804164,
  "status": 404,
  "error": "Not Found",
  "message": "No message available",
  "path": "/some-dummy-url"
}

That's a cool error response. It contains all the details that are typically needed.

What Happens When We Throw an Exception?

Let’s see what Spring Boot does when an exception is thrown from a Resource. we can specify the Response Status for a specific exception along with the definition of the Exception with ‘@ResponseStatus’ annotation. Let's create a ResourceNotFoundException.java class.

package com.companyname.springbootcrudrest.exception;

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseStatus;

@ResponseStatus(value = HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND)
public class ResourceNotFoundException extends Exception{

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

    public ResourceNotFoundException(String message){
        super(message);
    }
}

Customizing Error Response Structure

Default error response provided by Spring Boot contains all the details that are typically needed. However, you might want to create a framework independent response structure for your organization. In that case, you can define a specific error response structure. Let’s define a simple error response bean.

package com.companyname.springbootcrudrest.exception;

import java.util.Date;

public class ErrorDetails {
 private Date timestamp;
 private String message;
 private String details;

 public ErrorDetails(Date timestamp, String message, String details) {
  super();
  this.timestamp = timestamp;
  this.message = message;
  this.details = details;
 }

 public Date getTimestamp() {
  return timestamp;
 }

 public String getMessage() {
  return message;
 }

 public String getDetails() {
  return details;
 }
}

To use ErrorDetails to return the error response, let’s create a GlobalExceptionHandler class annotated with @ControllerAdvice annotation. This class handles exception specific and global exception in a single place.

package com.companyname.springbootcrudrest.exception;

import java.util.Date;

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.WebRequest;

@ControllerAdvice
public class GlobalExceptionHandler {
    @ExceptionHandler(ResourceNotFoundException.class)
    public ResponseEntity<?> resourceNotFoundException(ResourceNotFoundException ex, WebRequest request) {
         ErrorDetails errorDetails = new ErrorDetails(new Date(), ex.getMessage(), request.getDescription(false));
         return new ResponseEntity<>(errorDetails, HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler(Exception.class)
    public ResponseEntity<?> globleExcpetionHandler(Exception ex, WebRequest request) {
        ErrorDetails errorDetails = new ErrorDetails(new Date(), ex.getMessage(), request.getDescription(false));
        return new ResponseEntity<>(errorDetails, HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
    }
}
Read more how to implement exception handling effectively in RESTFul web services using Spring Boot 2 Exception Handling for REST APIs article

Running Application

This spring boot application has an entry point Java class called SpringBootCrudRestApplication.java with the public static void main(String[] args) method, which you can run to start the application.

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;

import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
    }
}

@SpringBootApplication is a convenience annotation that adds all of the following:

  • @Configuration tags the class as a source of bean definitions for the application context.
  • @EnableAutoConfiguration tells Spring Boot to start adding beans based on classpath settings, other beans, and various property settings.
  • Normally you would add @EnableWebMvc for a Spring MVC app, but Spring Boot adds it automatically when it sees spring-webmvc on the classpath. This flags the application as a web application and activates key behaviors such as setting up a DispatcherServlet.
  • @ComponentScan tells Spring to look for other components, configurations, and services in the hello package, allowing it to find the controllers.

The main() method uses Spring Boot’s SpringApplication.run() method to launch an application.

Integration Testing for REST APIs

There is a separate beautiful article for integration testing for REST APIs on:

>> Spring Boot 2 REST APIs Integration Testing

Testing REST APIs via Postman Client

1. Create Employee REST API

HTTP Method: POST

Request URL: http://localhost:8080/api/v1/employees


2. Get Employee by ID REST API

HTTP Method: GET

Request URL: http://localhost:8080/api/v1/employees/11

3. Get all Employees REST API

HTTP Method: GET Request URL: http://localhost:8080/api/v1/employees

4. Update Employee REST API

HTTP Method: GET

Request URL: http://localhost:8080/api/v1/emploees/7

5. Delete Employee REST API

HTTP Method: DELETE

Request URL: http://localhost:8080/api/v1/employees/11

The source code of this tutorial is available on my GitHub Repository.

You can implement role-based Spring security using Spring Boot + Spring MVC + Role Based Spring Security + JPA + Thymeleaf + MySQL Tutorial article

Further Readings

Download A Buyer's Guide to Application and Data Integration, your one-stop-shop for research, checklists, and explanations for an application and data integration solution.

Topics:
spring boot 2.0 ,hibernate 5 ,jpa 2.1 ,mysql 5.7 ,maven 3.0 ,rest api ,crud ,rest api tutorial ,spring tutorial ,integration

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