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Tiny React and D3 Flamegraph Tutorial [Livecoding]

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Tiny React and D3 Flamegraph Tutorial [Livecoding]

React and D3 are two of the more powerful JavaScript libraries out there. A dev gives a quick tutorial on how to use these two frameworks to create animated graphs.

· Web Dev Zone ·
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Flamegraphs are great. They show you when you've been bad and made the CPU cry.

Here is a flamegraph built with React and D3. It shows some stack data I stole from the internet:

Image title

You can try it out here, and see the code on GitHub. Consider it a work in progress. Releasing as open source once the animation works smoothly!

Here's How it Works

You have two components:

  1. <Flamegraph>, which recursively renders the data tree.
  2. <FlameRect>, which renders a particular rectangle and its label.

Flamegraph

The <Flamegraph> component without animation takes your data, loops it through the array of entries at this level, and calls itself on data.children.

import { scaleLinear, schemeOrRd, color as d3color } from "d3" ;

class Flamegraph extends React.Component {
    render( ) {
        const { x = 0 , y = 0 , width, level = 0 , data } = this.props ;

        const xScale = scaleLinear( )
            .domain ( [ 0 , data.reduce ( (sum, d) => sum + d.value , 0 ) ] )
            .range ( [ 0 , width] ) ;

        return (
            <g transform= {`translate(${x} , ${y} )`} >
                {data.map ( (d, i) => {
                    const start = data
                        .slice ( 0 , i)
                        .reduce ( (sum, d) => sum + d.value , 0 ) ;

                    return (
                        <React.Fragment key= {`${level} -${d.name }`} >
                            <FlameRect
                                x= {xScale(start) }
                                y= { 0 }
                                width= {xScale(d.value ) }
                                height= {RowHeight}
                                name= {d.name }
                            />
                            {d.children && (
                                <Flamegraph
                                    data= {d.children }
                                    x= {xScale(start) }
                                    y= {RowHeight}
                                    width= {xScale(d.value ) }
                                    level= {level + 1 }
                                />
                            ) }
                        </React.Fragment >
                    ) ;
                } ) }
            </g>
        ) ;
    }
}

Our render method takes a bunch of params out of props, creates a linear D3 scale to make calculations easier, then renders an SVG grouping element.

Inside that element, we loop through the data, and for each entry, we create a new <React.Fragment>. The fragment contains <FlameRect> which represents the current datapoint, and a <Flamegraph> which renders all the child nodes.

We decide each element's x position based on the sum of all node values up to the current one. And we make sure the child <Flamegraph> uses the same width as the current node. This creates the neat stacking effect.

The <FlameRect> component takes care of choosing a random color on initial render, highlighting when clicked, and displaying a label if there's enough space.

It looks like this:

import { scaleLinear, schemeOrRd, color as d3color } from "d3" ;

class FlameRect extends React.Component {
    state = {
        hideLabel: false ,
        selected: false ,
        color: schemeOrRd[ 9 ] [ Math.floor ( Math.random ( ) * 9 ) ]
    } ;

    labelRefCallback = element => {
        if (
            element &&
            element.getBoundingClientRect ( ).width > this.props.width
        ) {
            this.setState ( {
                hideLabel: true
            } ) ;
        }
    } ;

    onClick = ( ) => this.setState ( { selected: ! this.state.selected } ) ;

    render( ) {
        const { x, y, width, height, name } = this.props ,
            { hideLabel, selected } = this.state ;
        let { color } = this.state ;

        if (selected) {
            color = d3color(color).brighter ( ) ;
        }

        return (
            <g
                transform= {`translate(${x} , ${y} )`}
                style= { { cursor: "pointer" } }
                onClick= { this.onClick }
            >
                <rect
                    x= { 0 }
                    y= { 0 }
                    width= {width}
                    height= {height}
                    style= { {
                        stroke: "white" ,
                        fill: color
                    } }
                />
                { !hideLabel && (
                    <text
                        x= { 5 }
                        y= { 13 }
                        style= { { fontSize: "12px" } }
                        ref= { this.labelRefCallback }
                    >
                        {name}
                    </text>
                ) }
            </g>
        ) ;
    }
}

We render a grouping element that contains a <rect> and a <text>. The rect gets sizing and color information, and the label gets a ref callback and some text.

We use the ref callback to dynamically detect the size of our label and hide it if necessary. That happens in labelRefCallback.

onClick, we flip the selected state.

And, well, that's it. You can think of this component as a basic toggle component. Uses all the same logic, just renders as a colorful rectangle instead of a button.

Fin

That's the basic <Flamegraph> component. Uses recursion to render a tree data structure and lets you highlight individual elements.

Where it gets tricky is adding animation that lets users explore their data. Turns out deeply nested React elements are hard to animate smoothly.

The worst part is how long it takes before React even propagates prop updates through the tree before the animation even starts. Once the animation is running, it's smooth as silk.

But getting it started, ho boy.

This warrants further research. I'll be back!


PS: version 0.1.0 is in fact on npm if you want to play.

Deploying code to production can be filled with uncertainty. Reduce the risks, and deploy earlier and more often. Download this free guide to learn more. Brought to you in partnership with Rollbar.

Topics:
web dev ,react.js ,d3.js ,web application development

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