Cloud development toolkits like Libcloud (for Python) and jcloud (for Java) have been around for some time, but over the last two months they have been joined by several other open source contenders. They all claim to abstract the on-the-wire Cloud management protocols sufficiently to let you access different Clouds via the same code; while at the same time providing objects in your programming language of choice and saving you the trouble of dealing with on-the-wire messages. By focusing on interoperability, they slot themselves below the larger role of a “Cloud broker” (which also deals with tasks like transfer and choice). Here is the list, starting with the more recent contenders:
- CloudLoop (here is the announcement) – focused on storage
- OpenNebula (here is the announcement)
- Dasein (here is the announcement)
DeltaCloud shares the same goal of translating between different Cloud management protocols but they present their own interface as yet another Cloud REST API/protocol rather than a language-specific toolkit. More along the lines of what UCI is trying to do (not sure what’s up with that project, I recorded my skepticism earlier and am still waiting to be pleasantly surprised).
Of course there are also programming toolkits that are specific to one Cloud provider. They are language-specific wrappers around one Cloud management protocol. AWS protocols (EC2, S3, etc…) represent the most common case, for example amazon-ec2 (a Ruby Gem), Power-EC2Dream (in C# which gives it the tantalizing advantage of being invokable via PowerShell) and typica (for Java). For Clouds beyond AWS, check out the various RightScale Ruby Gems.
The main point of this entry was to list the cross-Cloud development toolkits in the bullet list above. But if you’re in the mood for some pontification you can keep reading.
For some reason, what used to be called “protocols” is often called “APIs” in Cloud settings. Witness the Sun Cloud “API” or the vCloud “API” which only define XML formats for on-the-wire messages. I have never heard of CIM/XML over HTTP, WSDM or WS-Management being referred as APIs though they occupy a very similar place. They are usually considered “protocols”.
It’s a just question of definition whether an on-the-wire protocol (rather than a language-specific set of objects/methods) qualifies as an “Application Programming Interface”. It’s not an “interface” in the Java sense of the term. But I can “program” against it so it could go either way. On this blog I have gone along with the “API” term because that seemed widely used, though in verbal conversations I have tended to stick to “protocol”. One problem with “API” is that it pushes you towards mixing the “what” and the “how” and not respecting the protocol/model dichotomy.
Where is becomes relevant is when you start to see language-specific APIs for Cloud control pop-up as listed above. You now have two classes of things called “API” and it gets a bit confusing. Is it time to bring back the “protocol” term for on-the-wire definitions?
As a developer, whether you’re better off eating your Cloud noodles using chopsticks (on-the-wire protocol definitions) or a fork (language-specific APIs) is an important decision that will stay with you and may come back to bit you (e.g. when the interfaces are versioned). There is a place for both of course, but if we are to learn anything from WS-* it’s that we went way too far in the “give me a java stub” direction. Which doesn’t mean there is no room for them, but be careful how far from the wire semantics you get. It become even trickier when your stub tries not jsut to bridge between XML and Java but also to smooth out the differences between several on-the-wire protocols, as the toolkits above do. The hope, of course, is that there will eventually be enough standardization of on-the-wire protocols to make this a moot point.