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Web Services vs. SOA and Pretty URL vs. REST

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It has been quite a time since Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Representational State Transfer (REST) architectures are around, yet there are some misconceptions about them I hear very often, which I would like to discuss here.

1. Having web services does not mean you have an SOA architecture

This is perhaps one of the biggest misconceptions about SOA architecture I hear very very often. I see many developers thinking that if they have a web service or two in their architecture, they say their architecture is an SOA architecture. I think this comes because of two reasons: 1) “Web service” and “service oriented” resemblance in naming makes people think they are the same thing; 2) As web services are the most common way of implementing an SOA architecture, this pushes people think that when they have created one web service, their architecture is an SOA architecture.

An SOA architecture is characterized of composition of independent services which encapsulate business functionality and expose it as a service, which can be  a web service, a windows service,  or any other form of exposure. Ubiquity of web and advancement of web development technologies which made the creation of web services easier have put web services as a mean of choice for implementation of an SOA architecture, however, the definition of a service within an SOA architecture does not put web services in any special position regarding implementation of SOA architectures. Here is the definition of a service from Open Group:

A service:

Is a logical representation of a repeatable business activity that has a specified outcome (e.g., check customer credit, provide weather data, consolidate drilling reports)
Is self-contained
May be composed of other services
Is a “black box” to consumers of the service

 Web services and SOA make a great pair which power a lot of important and popular service out there, but it should be crystal clear to Software Architects, Developers, and anyone contributing to software developments that having web services does not mean you have an SOA architecture.

2. Having pretty URLs does not mean you have a REST architectural style

REST architectural style is another popular topic lately, and as such, is subject to a lot of misconceptions as well. REST has brought simplicity to implementation of web services and is embraced very popularly from the web development community. It plays well with the HTTP protocol, which we are familiar with ever since the beginning of www era.

One characteristic of REST architectural style is that resources are at the center of the architecture, and they are beautifully represented in URLs. REST has brought us pretty URLs, and therefore people have created a connection between the URLs and REST architecture. Leonard Richardson has developed a maturity model which tells the level of your API or RESTful services to what degree are RESTful. Martin Fowler has a great post about richardson maturity model. The levels are described as in this picture:

richardson's rest levels of maturity for REST

The very first level of the pyramid, level 1 is the implementation of URI or introduction of resources and at this level of implementation resides using the “pretty” URLs to connect URIs to resources. The level 2 refers to using HTTP verbs and the most advanced level, level 3 refers to using hypermedia or following HATOAS.

In Richardson’s model is clearly seen that pretty URLs are the very basic level of implementing RESTful web services towards a REST architecture and clearly explain that having pretty URLs to access your services does not mean you have a REST architectural style in place.

In my opinion, implementing an SOA architecture and RESTful web services requires to have a clear understanding of these concepts, the constraints which come with them, and what is required to have such an architecture in place. Clear understanding will lead to effective architectures which allow us to reach the promises and benefits of these architectural styles.

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Published at DZone with permission of Arian Celina, DZone MVB. See the original article here.

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