In the world of data security, a critical element of working with users is earning their trust. Obtaining, implementing, and properly using an SSL certificate is one way to protect user data. Without a certificate, there is also no easy way to keep the communications between the user and an eCommerce website private from attackers.
What Is Encryption?
Encryption protects data and keeps secrets out of reach from eavesdroppers. It seems like the stuff of movies and television dramas. It’s often portrayed in the media as some impenetrable obstacle that can’t be overcome without keys. Or, as an easy challenge to solve with rapid typing and a few progress bars.
We encounter encryption all the time on the web. Websites and web browsers are configured to allow for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) which creates an encrypted link that prevents an attacker from listening in on the traffic and understanding what data is going back and forth. When communicating over an SSL link, a user’s credit card number, social security number, password, and other sensitive information can all safely pass right under an attacker’s nose.
Why Is an Encrypted SSL Link So Important?
When creating an encrypted SSL link, the first step that a user’s web browser takes is to verify that the website on the other end of the connection is who it says it is. Neglecting this first step can lead to a man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack. MitM attacks allow an attacker access to encrypted data by inserting themselves into the middle of the link.
Without a certificate to validate the website, a user might mistakenly connect to an attacker instead. The attacker then completes the loop by creating an encrypted connection to the website and pretends to be the user. Despite the idea that an attacker shouldn’t be able to read the data because it’s encrypted end to end, the connection shenanigans allow the attacker to decrypt data as it moves to and from the website by sitting in the middle.
What Is an SSL Certificate?
An SSL certificate can prevent MitM attacks by ensuring that the user’s web browser connects to a legitimate website. This works through trust delegation. The website provides the browser with a certificate issued by a trusted certificate authority. Only then does the browser trust the website.
There are a handful of certificate authorities. Common browsers support most of these. Occasionally, a browser will remove a certificate authority if it deems it to be untrustworthy.
Just as not all certificate authorities are the same, not all certificates are the same. Here are several certificate varieties:
- Domain validation is the least expensive certificate to obtain. It covers basic encryption and verification of the ownership of the domain name registration. Additionally, it takes only a few minutes to obtain.
- Organization validation is a more sizable undertaking. In addition to basic encryption and verification of ownership of the domain name registration, organization validation requires authentication details such as the name and address of the owner. It can take several hours, and up to several days to receive.
- Extended validation (EV) provides the highest degree of security. In addition to authenticating the ownership of the domain name registration and entity, extended validation verifies the legal, physical, and operational existence of the entity. It can take a few days, and up to several weeks to receive.
If an attacker pretends to be the website and lacks a valid certificate, the user’s web browser won’t establish a trusted connection. The browser will also issue a warning to the user cautioning them to be wary of the site.
What Can eCommerce Websites Do to Protect Users?
If your eCommerce website isn’t creating encrypted connections, your customers might not see warnings about untrustworthy SSL connections. However, there may be other warnings. For example, Chrome displays an alert whenever the user is about to send sensitive information or passwords over an unencrypted connection. Without encryption, an attacker might be able to read passwords, credit card information, and other sensitive information the user also sends to the website.
SSL certificates and connections make it easy for eCommerce sites to protect sensitive data. If your website is not currently using encrypted connections, you are putting your customers at risk. SSL certificates are inexpensive and pay for themselves many times over by preventing lost business and data breaches.