. Paul Gibson began to teach programming classes for teens out of frustration. A computer scientist at the National University of Ireland, he had by 1998 become shocked at the ineptness of his students. “I was seeing 18- and 19-year-olds having trouble with basic programming concepts that I myself had learned when I was 12,” recalls Gibson, who taught himself to code on a Sinclair ZX81. “I realized they hadn’t seen any programming in school at all up to that point. So I thought maybe one of the problems we were having is that they were coming to it too late.” As word of Gibson’s classes spread, primary schools in the Dublin area sought his services too.