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Refcard #015


A Rapid-Development JVM Language

Shows you best practices and idiomatic solutions to help you achieve solutions that fully leverage the power of the Groovy language.

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Written By

author avatar Dierk Koenig
Architect, Canoo Engineering AG
Section 1

About Groovy

Groovy is a dynamic language for the Java™ Virtual Machine (JVM). It shines with full object-orientation, scriptability, optional typing, operator customization, lexical declarations for the most common data types, advanced concepts like closures and ranges, compact property syntax and seamless Java™ integration. This reference card provides exactly the kind of information you are likely to look up when programming Groovy.

Section 2

Starting Groovy

Install Groovy from http://groovy.codehaus.org and you will have the following commands available:

Command Purpose
groovy Execute Groovy code
groovyc Compile Groovy code
groovysh Open Groovy shell
groovyConsole Open Groovy UI console
java2groovy Migration helper

The groovy command comes with -h and --help options to show all options and required arguments. Typical usages are:

Execute file MyScript.groovy

groovy MyScript

Evaluate (e) on the command line

groovy -e "print 12.5*Math.PI"

Print (p) for each line of input

echo 12.5  groovy -pe|
"line.toDouble() * Math.PI"

Inline edit (i) file data.txt by reversing each line and save a backup

groovy -i.bak -pe
"line.reverse()" data.txt
Section 3

Groovy/Java Integration

From Groovy, you can call any Java code like you would do from Java. It's identical.

From Java, you can call Groovy code in the following ways. Note that you need to have the groovy-all.jar in your classpath.


Use groovyc, the <groovyc/> ant task or your IDE integration to compile your groovy code together with your Java code. This enables you to use your Groovy code as if it was written in Java.


Use class groovy.util.Eval for evaluating simple code that is captured in a Java String: (int) Eval.xyz(1,2,3,"x+y+z");


Use groovy.util.GroovyShell for more flexibility in the Binding and optional pre-parsing:

GroovyShell shell= new GroovyShell();
Script scpt = shell.parse("y = x*x");
Binding binding = new Binding();
binding.setVariable("x", 2);
(int) binding.getVariable("y");

Chapter 11 of Groovy in Action has more details about integration options. Here is an overview:

Integration option Features/properties
Eval/GroovyShell for small expressions + reloading, security
GroovyScriptEngine for dependent scripts + reloading - classes, security
GroovyClassLoader the catch-all solution + reloading, security
Spring Beans integrates with Spring + reloading
JSR-223 easy language switch but limited in API
- reloading, security
requires Java 6
Section 4

Language Elements

Classes & Scripts

A Groovy class declaration looks like in Java. Default visibility modifier is public

class MyClass {
void myMethod(String argument) {

When a .groovy file or any other source of Groovy code contains code that is not enclosed in a class declaration, then this code is considered a Script, e.g.

println "Hello World"

Scripts differ from classes in that they have a Binding that serves as a container for undeclared references (that are not allowed in classes).

println text // expected in Binding
result = 1 // is put into Binding

Optional Typing

Static types can be used like in Java and will be obeyed at runtime. Dynamic typing is used by replacing the type declaration with the def keyword. Formal parameters to method and closure declarations can even omit the def.


Properties are declared as fields with the default visibility modifier, no matter what type is used.

class MyClass {
String stringProp
def dynamicProp

Java-style getters and setters are compiled into the bytecode automatically.

Properties are referred to like

println obj.stringProp // getter
obj.dynamicProp = 1 // setter

regardless of whether obj was written in Java or Groovy, the respective getters/setters will be called.


Methods are dispatched by the runtime type, allowing code like

class Pers {
String name
boolean equals(Pers other) {
name == other.name
assert new Pers(name:'x') == new Pers(name:'x')
assert new Pers(name:'x') != 1
Section 5


Customizable Operators

Operators can be customized by implementing/ overriding the respective method.

Operator Method
a + b a.plus(b)
a - b a.minus(b)
a * b a.multiply(b)
a / b a.div(b)
a % b a.mod(b)
a**b a.power(b)
a|b a.or(b)
a&b a.and(b)
a^b a.xor(b)
~a ~a a.bitwiseNegate() // sometimes referred to as negate
| +a a.positive() // sometimes referred to as unaryMinus
| -a a.negative() // sometimes referred to as unaryPlus
a[b] a.getAt(b)
a[b] = c a.putAt(b, c)
a << b a.leftShift(b)
a >> b a.rightShift(b)
a >>> b a.rightShiftUnsigned(b)
switch(a){ case b: }
if(a in b)
b.isCase(a) // b is a classifier
a == b a.equals(b)
a != b ! a.equals(b)
a <=> b a.compareTo(b)
a > b a.compareTo(b) > 0
a >= b a.compareTo(b) >= 0
a < b a.compareTo(b) < 0
a <= b a.compareTo(b) <= 0
a as B a.asType(B)

Hot Tip

Actively look for opportunities to implement operator methods in your own Groovy class. This often leads to more expressive code. Typical candidates are ==, <=>, +, -, <<, and isCase(). See also Ranges.

Special Operators

Operators Meaning Name
a ? b : c if (a) b else c ternary if
a ?: b a ? a : b Elvis
a?.b a==null ? a : a.b null safe
a(*list) a(list[0], list[1], ...) spread
list*.a() [list[0].a(), list[1].a() ...] spread-dot
a.&b reference to method b in object a as closure method closure
a.@field direct field access dot-at
Section 6

Simple Datatypes


All Groovy numbers are objects, not primitive types. Literal declarations are:

Type Example literals
java.lang.Integer 15, 0x1234ffff
java.lang.Long 100L, 100l
java.lang.Float 1.23f, 4.56F
java.lang.Double 1.23d, 4.56D
java.math.BigInteger 123g, 456G
java.math.BigDecimal 1.23, 4.56, 1.4E4, 2.8e4, 1.23g, 1.23G

Coercion rules for math operations are explained in Groovy in Action, chapter 3. Some examples to remember are:

Expression Result type
1f * 2f Double
1f / 2f Double
(Byte)1 + (Byte)2 Integer
1 * 2L Long
1 / 2 BigDecimal (0.5)
(int)(1/2) Integer (0)
1.intdiv(2) Integer (0)
Integer.MAX_VALUE+1 Integer
2**31 Integer
2**33 Long
2**3.5 Double
2G + 1G BigInteger
2.5G + 1G BigDecimal
1.5G == 1.5F Boolean (true)
1.1G == 1.1F 1.1G == 1.1F


'literal String'
multiline String'''
def lang = 'Groovy'
"GString for $lang"
"$lang has ${lang.size()} chars"
"""multiline GString with
late eval at ${-> new Date()}"""

Placeholders in GStrings are dereferenced at declaration time but their text representation is queried at GString -pString conversion time.

/String with unescaped \ included/

Regular Expressions

The regex find operator =~

The regex match operator ==~

The regex Pattern operator ~String


def twister = 'she sells sea shells'

// contains word 'she'

assert twister =~ 'she'

// starts with 'she' and ends with 'shells'

assert twister ==~ /she.*shells/

// same precompiled

def pattern = ~/she.*shells/
assert pattern.matcher(twister).matches()

// matches are iterable
// words that start with 'sh'

def shwords = (twister =~ /\bsh\w*/).collect{it}.join(' ')
assert shwords == 'she shells'

// replace through logic

assert twister.replaceAll(/\w+/){
} == '3 5 3 6'

// regex groups to closure params
// find words with same start and end

def matcher = (twister =~ /(\w)(\w+)\1/)
matcher.each { full, first, rest ->
assert full in ['sells','shells']
assert first == 's'
Symbol Meaning
. any character
^ start of line (or start of document, when in single-line mode)
$ end of line (or end of document, when in single-line mode)
\d digit character
\D any character except digits
\s whitespace character
\S any character except whitespace
\w word character
\W any character except word characters
\b word boundary
() grouping
(x|y) x or y as in (Groovy|Java|Ruby)
\1 backmatch to group one, e.g. find doubled characters with (.)\1
x* zero or more occurrences of x.
x+ one or more occurrences of x.
x? zero or one occurrence of x.
x{m,n} at least "m" and at most "n" occurrences of x.
x{m} exactly "m" occurrences of x.
[a-f] character class containing the characters 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'
[^a] character class containing any character except 'a'
(?is:x) switches mode when evaluating x; i turns on ignoreCase, s single-line mode
(?=regex) positive lookahead
(?<=text) positive lookbehind
Section 7

Collective Datatypes


Ranges appear inclusively like 0..10 or half-exclusively like 0..<10. They are often enclosed in parentheses since the range operator has low precedence.

assert (0..10).contains(5)
assert (0.0..10.0).containsWithinBounds(3.5)
for (item in 0..10) { println item }
for (item in 10..0) { println item }
(0..<10).each { println it }

Integer ranges are often used for selecting sublists. Range boundaries can be of any type that defines previous(), next() and implements Comparable. Notable examples are String and Date.


Lists look like arrays but are of type java.util.List plus new methods.

[1,2,3,4] == (1..4)
[1,2,3] + [1] == [1,2,3,1]
[1,2,3] << 1 == [1,2,3,1]
[1,2,3,1] - [1] == [2,3]
[1,2,3] * 2 == [1,2,3,1,2,3]
[1,[2,3]].flatten() == [1,2,3]
[1,2,3].reverse() == [3,2,1]
[1,2,3].disjoint([4,5,6]) == true
[1,2,3].intersect([4,3,1]) == [3,1]
[1,2,3].collect{ it+3 } == [4,5,6]
[1,2,3,1].unique().size() == 3
[1,2,3,1].count(1) == 2
[1,2,3,4].min() == 1
[1,2,3,4].max() == 4
[1,2,3,4].sum() == 10
[4,2,1,3].sort() == [1,2,3,4]
[4,2,1,3].findAll{it%2 == 0} == [4,2]
def anims=['cat','kangaroo','koala']
anims[2] == 'koala'
def kanims = anims[1..2]
anims.findAll{it =~ /k.*/} ==kanims
anims.find{ it =~ /k.*/} ==kanims[0]
anims.grep(~/k.*/) ==kanims     

The sort() method is often used and comes in three flavors:

Sort call Usage
col.sort() natural sort for comparable objects
col.sort { it.propname } applying the closure to each item before comparing the results
col.sort { a,b -> a <=> b } closure defines a comparator for each comparison

Lists can also be indexed with negative indexes and reversed ranges.

def list = [0,1,2]
assert list[-1] == 2
assert list[-1..0] == list.reverse()
assert list == [list.head()] + list.tail()

Sublist assignments can make a list grow or shrink and lists can contain varying data types.

list[1..2] = ['x','y','z']
assert list == [0,'x','y','z']


Maps are like lists that have an arbitrary type of key instead of integer. Therefore, the syntax is very much aligned.

def map = [a:0, b:1]

Maps can be accessed in a conventional square-bracket syntax or as if the key was a property of the map.

assert map['a'] == 0
assert map.b == 1
map['a'] = 'x'
map.b = 'y'
assert map == [a:'x', b:'y']

There is also an explicit get method that optionally takes a default value.

assert map.c == null
assert map.get('c',2) == 2
assert map.c == 2

Map iteration methods take the nature of Map.Entry objects into account.

map.each { entry ->
println entry.key
println entry.value
map.each { key, value ->
println "$key $value"
for (entry in map) {
println "$entry.key $entry.value"


Calling a property on a list returns a list of the property for each item in the list.


returns a list of town objects.

To do the same with method calls, use the spread-dot operator.

calls the bonus method on each employee and stores the
result in a list.


Closures capture a piece of logic and the enclosing scope. They are first-class objects and can receive messages, can be returned from method calls, stored in fields, and used as arguments to a method call.

Use in method parameter

def forEach(int i, Closure yield){
for (x in 1..i) yield(x)

Use as last method argument

forEach(3) { num -> println num }

Construct and assign to local variable

def squareIt = { println it * it}
forEach(3, squareIt)

Bind leftmost closure param to fixed argument

def multIt = {x, y -> println x * y}
forEach 3, multIt.curry(2)
forEach 3, multIt.curry('-')

Closure parameter list examples:

Closure.isCase(b) sends b to the closure and returns the call result as boolean. Use as in

switch ('xy'){
case {it.startsWith('x')} :...
[0,1,2].grep { it%2 == 0 }
Section 8


Methods for java.lang.Object

Get object info

println obj.dump()

or in a GUI

import groovy.inspect.swingui.*

Print properties, methods, and fields of obj

println obj.properties
println obj.class.methods.name
println obj.class.fields.name

Two ways to invoke a method dynamically

obj.invokeMethod(name, paramsAry)

Further methods

is(other) // identity check
isCase(candidate) //default:equality
obj.identity {...}; obj.with {...}
print(); print(value),
println(); println(value)
printf(formatStr, value)
printf(formatStr, value[])
sleep(millis) { onInterrupt }
use(categoryClass) { ... }
use(categoryClassList) { ... }

Every object is iterable in Groovy,even if it was implemented in Java. See Groovy in Action, chapter 9 on what strategy Groovy applies to make this happen.

Not only can you use any obj in loops like

for (element in obj) { ... }

but you can also apply the following iterative objects methods:

Returns Purpose
Boolean any {...}
List collect {...}
Collection collect(Collection collection) {...}
(void) each {...}
(void) eachWithIndex {item, index-> ...}
Boolean every {...}
Object find {...}
List findAll {...}
Integer findIndexOf {...}
Integer findIndexOf(startIndex) {...}
Integer findLastIndexOf {...}
Integer findLastIndexOf(startIndex) {...}
List findIndexValues {...}
List findIndexValues(startIndex) {...}
Object inject(startValue) {temp, item -> ...}
List grep(Object classifier)
// uses classifier.isCase(item)

Hot Tip

Implement the iterator() method that returns an Iterator object to give your own Groovy class meaningful iterable behavior with the above methods.

Files and I/0

Often-used filesystem methods

def dir = new File('somedir')
def cl = {File f -> println f}
dir.eachDir cl
dir.eachFile cl
dir.eachDirRecurse cl
dir.eachFileRecurse cl
dir.eachDirMatch(~/.*/, cl)
dir.eachFileMatch(~/.*/, cl)

Often used reading methods

def file = new File('/data.txt')
println file.text
(also for Reader, URL, InputStream,Process)
def listOfLines = file.readLines()
file.eachLine { line -> ... }
file.splitEachLine(/\s/) { list -> }
file.withReader { reader -> ... }
(also for Reader, URL, InputStream)
file.withInputStream { is -> ...}
(also for URL)

Often-used writing methods

out << 'content'
for out of type File, Writer, OutputStream, Socket, and Process
file.withWriter('ASCII') {writer -> }
writer -> ... }

Reading and writing with Strings

def out = new StringWriter()
out << 'something'
def str = out.toString()
def rdr = new StringReader(str)
println rdr.readLines()

Connecting readers and writers

writer << reader

Special logic for writable objects, e.g. writeTo()

writer << obj

Transform (with closure returning the replacement) and filter (with closure returning boolean)

reader.transformChar(writer){c -> }
reader.transformLine(writer){line-> }
src.filterLine(writer){line-> }
writer << src.filterLine {line -> }
For src in File, Reader, InputStream

Threads & Processes

Two ways of spawning new threads

def thread = Thread.start { ... }
def t = Thread.startDaemon { ... }

Two ways of talking to an external process ('cmd /c' is for Windows platforms only)

today = 'cmd /c date /t'
proc = ['cmd','/c','date']
Thread.start {System.out << proc.in}
Thread.start {System.err << proc.err}
proc << 'no-such-date' + "\n"
proc << today.join('-') + "\n"
Section 9


Reading XML

Decide to use the parser (for state-based processing) or the slurper (for flow-based processing)

def parser = new XmlParser()
def slurper = new XmlSlurper()

Common parse methods:

parse(String uri)
parseText(String text)

The parse methods of parser and slurper return different objects (Node vs. GPathResult) but you can apply the following methods on both:

result.iterator() // see GDK hot tip

Shorthands for children, child, and attribute access:

Shorthand Result
['elementName'] All child elements of that name
[index] Child element by index
['@attributeName'] The attribute value stored under that name

Reading the first ten titles from a blog:

def url= 'http://'+
def rss = new XmlParser().parse(url)

Writing XML

Groovy (Streaming-) MarkupBuilder allows you to produce proper XML with logic while keeping a declarative style.

def b=new groovy.xml.MarkupBuilder()
b.outermost {
'with-attr' a:1, b:'x', 'content'
10.times { count ->
nesting { nested count }
Section 10


Connecting to the DB

Getting a new Sql instance directly. For example, a HSQLDB

import groovy.sql.Sql
def db = Sql.newInstance(

Alternative with using a datasource

import org.hsqldb.jdbc.*
def source = new jdbcDataSource()
source.database = 'jdbc:hsqldb:mem:GInA'
source.user = 'user-name'
source.password = 'password'
def db = new groovy.sql.Sql(source)

Submitting Queries

When a query contains wildcards, it is wise to use a PreparedStatement. Groovy SQL does this automatically when you supply either the list of values in an extra list or when the statement is a GString. So each method below has three variants:

method('SELECT ... ')
method('SELECT ...?,?', [x,y])
method("SELECT ... $x,$y")
Returns Method name Parameters
boolean execute prepStmt
Integer executeUpdate prepStmt
void eachRow prepStmt { row -> }
void query prepStmt { resultSet -> ... }
List rows prepStmt
Object firstRow prepStmt

In the above, attributes can be fetched from each row by index or by name

db.eachRow('SELECT a,b ...'){ row ->
println row[0] + ' ' + row.b

Combine with GPath

List hits = db.rows('SELECT ...')
hits.grep{it.a > 0}


For easy DB operations without SQL

def dataSet = db.dataSet(tablename)
dataSet.add (
a: 1,
b: 'something'
dataSet.each { println it.a }
dataSet.findAll { it.a < 2 }

In the last statement, the expression in the findAll closure will map directly to a SQL WHERE clause.

Section 11

Meta Programming


Group of methods assigned at runtime to arbitrary classes that fulfill a common purpose. Applies to one thread. Scope is limited to a closure.

class IntCodec {
static String encode(Integer self){self.toString()}
static Integer decode(String self){self.toInteger()}
use(IntCodec) {42.encode().decode()}


Same example but change applies to all threads and unlimited scope.

Integer.metaClass.encode << {delegate.toString()}
String.metaClass.decode << {delegate.toInteger()}

Method Invocation Hooks

In your Groovy class, implement the method

Object invokeMethod(String name, Object args)

to intercept calls to unavailable methods.

Additionally, implement the interface GroovyInterceptable to intercept also calls to available methods.


Object getProperty(String name)
void setProperty(
String name, Object value)

to intercept property access.

A bit easier to handle are the variants

Object methodMissing(
String name, Object args)
Object propertyMissing(
String name, Object args)

that are called like the name suggests.

Instead of implementing the above methods, they can also be added to the MetaClass of any arbitrary class (or object) to achieve the same effect.

Integer.metaClass.methodMissing << {
String name, Object args ->
println 3.sin()
println 3.cos()
Closure Parameters
{ ... } zero or one (implicit 'it')
{-> ... } zero
{x -> ... } one
{x=1 -> ... } one or zero with default
{x,y -> ... } two
{ String x -> ... } one with static type

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