Algorithm of the Week: Data Compression with Prefix Encoding
Prefix encoding, sometimes called front encoding, is yet another algorithm that tries to remove duplicated data in order to reduce its size. Its principles are simple, however this algorithm tends to be difficult to implement. To understand why, first let’s take a look at its nature.
Have a look on the following dictionary.
Instead of keeping all these words in plain text or transferring all
them over a network, we can compress (encode) them with prefix encoding.
It’s clear that each of these words begins with the prefix “use” which is also the first word from the list. So we can easily compress them into the following array.
$data = array( 0 => 'use', 1 => '0d', 2 => '0ful', 3 => '0fully', 4 => '0less', 5 => '0lessly', 6 => '0lessness', );
It’s clear that this is not the best compression and we can go even further by using not only the first word as prefix.
$data = array( 0 => 'use', 1 => '0d', 2 => '0ful', 3 => '2ly', 4 => '0less', 5 => '4ly', 6 => '4ness', );
Now the compression is better and the good news is that decompression is a fairly simple process. However the tricky part is compression itself. The problem is that it is quite difficult to chose an appropriate prefix. In our first example this is simple, but most of the time in practice we will have more heterogeneous data. Indeed the process of compression can be very difficult for randomly generated data and the algorithm will be not only slow, but difficult to implement.
The good thing is that this algorithm can be used in many cases once
we know the data format in advance. So let’s see three examples where
this algorithm can be very handy.
Here are three examples of prefix encoding. As I stated above, the
process of compression can be very difficult for random data, so it is a
good practice to use it only if you know in advance the format of the
Date and time prefixes
We humans often skip the first two digits of a year, so for instance we don’t always write 1995 or 1996, but we use the shorter – ‘95 and ‘96. Thus years can be encoded with shorter strings.
input: (1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996
output: (91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96)
The problem is that with small changes of the input stream we can confuse the decoder. Thus if we add years from the 21st century we lose the uniqueness of the data.
input: (1998, 1992, 1999, 2011, 2012)
output: (98, 92, 99, 11, 12)
Now the decoder can decode the last two values as (1911, 1912) as “19” is considered to be the prefix. So we must know in advance that our prefix is absolutely equal for each of the values. If not the encoding format must be different. For instance we can also encode the prefix, with some special marker.
input: (1998, 1992, 1932, 1924, 2001, 2012)
output: (#19, 98, 92, 32, 24, #20, 01, 12)
Once the decoder reads the # character it will know to decode the following number as prefix.
This can be used in practice for date and time formats. Let’s say we
have some datetime values, but we know that all of them are in the same
Obviously we can omit the date part of these strings and send (keep) only the time. Once again, we must be absolutely sure that all these values are in the same day. If not, we can use the encoding strategy of the previous example.
Phone numbers are the typical case of prefix encoding. Not only the international code, but also the mobile network operators use prefixes for their phone numbers. Thus if we have to transfer phone numbers from, let’s say the UK, we can replace the leading “+44” with something shorter.
If you happen to code a phone book for a mobile device you can save some space by compressing the data using prefix encoding and thus the user will have more space and will store more phone numbers on his or her mobile device.
Phone number prefixes can be also used for database normalization.
Thus you can store them in a separate db table and leave only the unique
numbers from the phonebook.
Using the same example from my previous post
we can send GEO coordinates by removing a common prefix, for large
levels of zoom. Indeed when you need to send lots of markers to your map
application you can expect all of these markers to be fairly close to
each other in large zoom level.
Now the coordinates of those points can have a common prefix, like the example bellow with the Subway stations.
We can see that all of these GEO points have the same prefix (40.76x, -73.98x), so we can send the prefix only once.
These are only three examples of prefix encoding and this algorithm is very useful when transferring homogeneous data.
Suffix encoding is practically the same algorithm as prefix encoding,
with the small difference that we use to encode duplicating suffixes.
Like the examples below, suffix encoding can be useful in replacing
repeating last name suffixes.
Or company names.
Here we can replace “ Inc.” with something else, but shorter.
- Computer Algorithms: Data Compression with Relative Encoding
- Computer Algorithms: Data Compression with Run-length Encoding
- Computer Algorithms: Data Compression with Diagram Encoding and Pattern Substitution