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Java 11: a New Way to Handle HTTP and WebSockets in Java!

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Java 11: a New Way to Handle HTTP and WebSockets in Java!

Java 11 has brought some interesting changes to handlers and APIs. Check out this post were we explore how to handle HTTP Clients and WebSockets in Java 11.

· Java Zone ·
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Once upon a time, using the Java SE (Standard Edition) APIs to perform common HTTP operations, such as REST API calls, might have been described as unnatural and cumbersome. Java 11 officially changes this. With Java 11, the incubated HTTP APIs from Java 9 are now officially incorporated into the Java SE API. The JDK Enhancement Proposal (JEP) 321 was the JEP behind this effort. Since being integrated into Java 11, the API has seen a few changes. As of Java 11, the API is now fully asynchronous. This article will attempt to show you the basic use of the new API by performing a REST API call. We will be using OpenJDK 11.

The APIs use java.util.concurrent.CompleteableFuture<T> to provide asynchronous, non-blocking request/response behavior, allowing for dependent actions. The API used new-style OOP method chaining, like a builder, which returns an object that may be affected by the method call.

In addition to the standard documentation, you can learn how to practically apply the CompleteableFuture<T> API here.

The new HTTP APIs can be found in java.net.HTTP.*.

The new APIs provide native support for HTTP 1.1/2 WebSocket. The core classes and interface providing the core functionality include:

  • The HttpClient class, java.net.http.HttpClient
  • The HttpRequest class, java.net.http.HttpRequest
  • The HttpResponse<T> interface, java.net.http.HttpResponse
  • The WebSocket interface, java.net.http.WebSocket

Types in the API:

Classes

  • java.net.http.HttpClient
  • java.net.http.HttpHeaders
  • java.net.http.HttpRequest
  • java.net.http.HttpRequest.BodyPublishers
  • java.net.http.HttpRequest.BodyHandlers
  • java.net.http.HttpRequest.BodySubscribers

Interfaces

  • java.net.http.HttpClient.Builder
  • java.net.http.HttpClient.BodyPublisher
  • java.net.http.HttpRequest.BodyPublisher
  • java.net.http.HttpResponse<T>
  • java.net.http.HttpResponse.BodyHandler<T>
  • java.net.http.HttpResponse.BodySubscriber<T>
  • java.net.http.HttpResponse.PushPromiseHandler<T>
  • java.net.http.HttpResponse.ResponseInfo
  • java.net.http.WebSocket
  • java.net.http.WebSocket.Builder
  • java.net.http.WebSocket.Listener

Enumeration

  • java.net.http.HttpClient.Redirect
  • java.net.http.HttpClient.Version

Exception

  • java.net.http.HttpTimeoutException
  • java.net.http.WebSocketHandshakeException

Pre-Java 11 Vs. Java 11: Handling REST API Calls

Pre-Java 11

/*
Copyright (C) 2018 Adrian D. Finlay. All rights reserved.
Licensed under the MIT License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
    https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER INCLUDING AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.
==============================================================================
**/

package com.adriandavid.http.prejava11;


import java.io.File;
import java.net.URI;
import java.util.Scanner;
import java.time.Duration;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.net.Authenticator;
import java.net.ProxySelector;
import java.net.http.WebSocket;
import java.net.http.HttpClient;
import java.net.http.HttpRequest;
import java.net.http.HttpResponse;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.nio.file.StandardOpenOption;
import java.nio.file.StandardCopyOption;

/* HTTP GET Request, Response (Pre-Java 11 API)   */
public class RESTDemo {

private String[] args;
private final String API_ENDPOINT = "https://onyxfx-api.herokuapp.com/nbaBasicStatBean?";
private final String API_ENDPOINT2 = "http://api.giphy.com/v1/gifs/";
    private final String API_ENDPOINT2_ID = "yoJC2COHSxjIqadyZW";
    private final String API_ENDPOINT2_KEY = "ZtFzb5dH6w9aYjoffJQ0RqlAsS5s0xwR";


public RESTDemo (String[] args) {
        this.args = args;
    };

    public void call() throws Exception {
        //HTTP GET REQUEST
        var HTTP_CLIENT= (HttpURLConnection) 
                            URI.create(
                                new StringBuilder(API_ENDPOINT)
                                .append("firstName=").append(args[0])
                                .append("&surname=").append(args[1])
                                .append("&season=").append(args[2])
                                .toString())
                            .toURL()
                            .openConnection();
        HTTP_CLIENT.setRequestMethod("GET");

        var HTTP_CLIENT2 = (HttpURLConnection)
                            URI.create( //Set the appropriate endpoint
                                new StringBuilder(API_ENDPOINT2)
                                .append(API_ENDPOINT2_ID)
                                .append("?api_key=").append(API_ENDPOINT2_KEY)
                                .append("&data")
                                .append("&type")
                                .append("&images")
                                .toString() )
                            .toURL()
                            .openConnection();
        HTTP_CLIENT2.setRequestMethod("GET");


        //HTTP RESPONSE
        var HTTP_RESPONSE = HTTP_CLIENT.getInputStream();
        var scn = new Scanner(HTTP_RESPONSE);
        var json_sb = new StringBuilder();
        while (scn.hasNext()) {
            json_sb.append(scn.next());
        }
        var JSON = json_sb.toString();

        if (HTTP_CLIENT2.getContentType().contains("json")) {
            var stream_in = (InputStream)(HTTP_CLIENT2.getContent());
            var stream_out = new FileOutputStream (new File("response1.json"));
            stream_in.transferTo(stream_out);
            stream_in.close();
            stream_out.close();
        }
        else
            return; // suffice for now.

        // HTTP STATUS
        var statusCode = HTTP_CLIENT.getResponseCode();
        var statusCode2 = HTTP_CLIENT2.getResponseCode();

        // HANDLE RESPONSE
        if (statusCode == 200 || statusCode == 201)
            System.out.println("Success! -- Pre-Java 11 REST API Call\n" + 
                args[1] + ", " + args[0] + " [" + args[2] +"]\n" + JSON);
        else
            System.out.println("Failure! -- Pre-Java 11 REST API Call");

        System.out.println("---------------------------------");

        if (statusCode2 == 200 || statusCode2 == 201) {
            System.out.println("Success! -- Pre-Java 11 REST API Call\n" + "Let's download the file!" );
        }
        else
            System.out.println("Failure! -- Pre-Java 11 REST API Call");

    System.out.println("---------------------------------");
    };
};


Java 11

/*
Copyright (C) 2018 Adrian D. Finlay. All rights reserved.
Licensed under the MIT License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
    https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER INCLUDING AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.
==============================================================================
**/

package com.adriandavid.http.java11;


import java.io.File;
import java.net.URI;
import java.util.Scanner;
import java.time.Duration;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.net.Authenticator;
import java.net.ProxySelector;
import java.net.http.WebSocket;
import java.net.http.HttpClient;
import java.net.http.HttpRequest;
import java.net.http.HttpResponse;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.nio.file.StandardOpenOption;
import java.nio.file.StandardCopyOption;

/* HTTP GET Request, Response (Java 11 APIs)  */
public class RESTDemo {
    private final String API_ENDPOINT = "https://onyxfx-api.herokuapp.com/nbaBasicStatBean?";
    private final String API_ENDPOINT2 = "http://api.giphy.com/v1/gifs/";
    private final String API_ENDPOINT2_ID = "yoJC2COHSxjIqadyZW";
    private final String API_ENDPOINT2_KEY = "ZtFzb5dH6w9aYjoffJQ0RqlAsS5s0xwR";
    private final HttpResponse.BodyHandler<String> asString = HttpResponse.BodyHandlers.ofString();
    private final HttpResponse.BodyHandler<Void> asDiscarded = HttpResponse.BodyHandlers.discarding();
    private final HttpResponse.BodyHandler<InputStream> asInputStream= HttpResponse.BodyHandlers.ofInputStream();
    private final HttpClient HTTP_CLIENT = HttpClient.newBuilder().version(HttpClient.Version.HTTP_2)
                            .followRedirects(HttpClient.Redirect.NORMAL).proxy(ProxySelector.getDefault()).build();
    private String[] args;

    public RESTDemo (String[] args) {
        this.args = args;
    };

    public void call() throws Exception {

        if (args.length < 4) {
            System.out.println("An invalid amount of arguments was supplied.");
            return;
        }

        System.out.println("---------------------------------");

        // HTTP GET REQUEST 
        var HTTP_REQUEST = HttpRequest.newBuilder()
            .uri(URI.create( //Set the appropriate endpoint
                    new StringBuilder(API_ENDPOINT)
                    .append("firstName=").append(args[0])
                    .append("&surname=").append(args[1])
                    .append("&season=").append(args[2])
                    .toString() ) )
            .timeout(Duration.ofMinutes(1))
            .header("Content-Type", "application/json")
            .build();              
        var HTTP_REQUEST2 = HttpRequest.newBuilder()
            .uri(URI.create( //Set the appropriate endpoint
                    new StringBuilder(API_ENDPOINT2)
                    .append(API_ENDPOINT2_ID)
                    .append("?api_key=").append(API_ENDPOINT2_KEY)
                    .append("&data")
                    .append("&type")
                    .append("&images")
                    .toString() ) )
            .timeout(Duration.ofMinutes(1))
            .header("Content-Type", "application/json")
            .build();


        // SEND HTTP GET REQUEST, RECIEVE OBJECT FOR HTTP GET RESPONSE 
        var HTTP_RESPONSE = HTTP_CLIENT.send(HTTP_REQUEST, asString);
        var HTTP_RESPONSE2 = HTTP_CLIENT.send(HTTP_REQUEST, asDiscarded);
        var HTTP_RESPONSE3 = HTTP_CLIENT.send(HTTP_REQUEST2, asInputStream);

        // HTTP STATUS CODE 
        var statusCode = HTTP_RESPONSE.statusCode();
        var statusCode2 = HTTP_RESPONSE2.statusCode();
        var statusCode3 = HTTP_RESPONSE3.statusCode();


        // HANDLE RESPONSE
        if (statusCode == 200 || statusCode == 201)
            System.out.println("Success! -- Java 11 REST API Call\n" + 
                args[1] + ", " + args[0] + " [" + args[3] +"]\n" + HTTP_RESPONSE.body());
        else 
            System.out.println("Failure! -- Java 11 REST API Call");

        System.out.println("---------------------------------");                

        if (statusCode2 == 200 || statusCode2 == 201)
            if (HTTP_RESPONSE2.body() == null)
            System.out.println("Success! -- Java 11 REST API Call\n" + 
                args[1] + ", " + args[0] + " [" + args[3] +"]\n" + "Data was discarded.");
        else 
            System.out.println("Failure! -- Java 11 REST API Call");

        System.out.println("---------------------------------");

        if (statusCode3 == 200 || statusCode3 == 201) {
            System.out.println("Success! -- Java 11 REST API Call\n" + "Let's download the file! ");
            var HTTP_STREAM = HTTP_RESPONSE3.body();
            Files.copy(HTTP_STREAM, new File("response2.json").toPath(), StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING);
            HTTP_STREAM.close();
        }
        else 
            System.out.println("Failure! -- Java 11 REST API Call");                                               

        System.out.println("---------------------------------");
    };
};


My Impression

The new API is, semantically, everything you would expect of a Java API in 2018. For a start, it is verbose. Secondly, it is modular. Thirdly, it follows the new OOP style of method chaining (or using builders) to construct objects. Fourthly, it feels more natively HTTP.

Verbosity

The bane and (to some) the valor of Java has always been verbosity. In Java, unlike most duck-typed languages, it is easier for the eye to induce types and behaviors. Java APIs typically follow a natural approach to naming, as one might expect in the real world — it is usually intuitive. In addition, Java's typing semantics are explicit, adding to this verbosity. However, the typical verbosity was reduced in my examples through my frequent use of Java 10’s var. Nevertheless, the API feels a bit verbose.

However, credit must be given to the API writers for allowing the implementation to be as configured or configured as little as desired. The new OOP style has allowed for that. For that matter, it should also be noted that there are many things that one can configure in the HTTP request-response cycle. Therefore, a great deal of verbosity is expected.

Modularity

Following the long-standing Unix tradition, long beloved by the Java community and in line with Java 9 efforts, the API is quite modular. The API is careful split into pieces that offer little to no cruft — one gets what one wants and usually nothing more. In addition, there is little dependency on classes not immediately relevant to the task at hand.

One exception to this rule that could be argued is the creation of a WebSocket. The most straightforward (and API-recommended) way to create a WebSocket is to use an instance of the WebSocket.Builder. WebSocket.Builder instances are most straightforwardly created by using java.net.http.HttpClient.newWebSocketBuilder(). Once that call has been made, it is typically chained with a call to java.net.WebSocket.Builder.buildAsynce(URI uri, WebSocket.LIstener) to produce a CompleteableFuture<WebSocket> object associated with the WebSocket. The WebSocket may then be retrieved by calling get()on the CompleteableFuture object.

Method Chaining

What I like about designing an API with method chaining as a means to construct objects is that it allows for objects that are configured as little as you would like them to be or as highly configured as you would like them to be. This result can be achieved by way of overloading constructors, of course, but after the object has been created, one has to call a setter() method to update or a property on the object. With builders, one may retrieve the modified object all in one call. It plays well into handling things like HTTP, where there are many properties to specify. It would be unwieldy to have to put in a 10 argument constructor list to modify an object. This style has been welcomed by the OOP community at large and is here to stay.

Native HTTP Feel

Lastly, the API feels more native to HTTP. Method names, such as body() and  headers(), are more appropriate ways to name a method than getContent()getHeaderField(), and  getHeaderKey(). The old APIs seemed to me to be to abstract and concerned with networking in a general sense, as opposed to HTTP. It’s also more intuitive in terms of specifying BodyHandlers and so on. In the old API, this felt like an unnatural operation, or rather, specifying them felt like incorporating a foreign citizen. The design and use of the API can lead to some unexpected behavior. This is, however, just my impression.

Advantages Over HTTPUrlConnection

The advantages that have personally caught my eye over the old API are:

  1. Improved Support for HTTP, HTTP/2
  2. Native HTTP Feel, HTTP is a first class citizen
  3. Asynchronous, non-blocking Implementation
  4. New API that works more naturally with modern language features

The full source code, including examples using WebSockets, can be found here.

Topics:
java ,websockets ,java 11 ,http ,api ,http client ,handling

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