Over a million developers have joined DZone.
{{announcement.body}}
{{announcement.title}}

Mocking of 'Open' as a Context Manager Made Simple In Python

DZone's Guide to

Mocking of 'Open' as a Context Manager Made Simple In Python

· Java Zone
Free Resource

The single app analytics solutions to take your web and mobile apps to the next level.  Try today!  Brought to you in partnership with CA Technologies

Using open as a context manager is a great way to ensure your file handles are closed properly and is becoming common:

with open('/some/path', 'w') as f:
    f.write('something')


The issue is that even if you mock out the call to open it is the returned object that is used as a context manager (and has __enter__ and __exit__ called).

Using MagicMock from the mock library, we can mock out context managers very simply. However, mocking open is fiddly enough that a helper function is useful. Here mock_open creates and configures a MagicMock that behaves as a file context manager.

from mock import inPy3k, MagicMock

if inPy3k:
    file_spec = ['_CHUNK_SIZE', '__enter__', '__eq__', '__exit__',
        '__format__', '__ge__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__iter__', '__le__',
        '__lt__', '__ne__', '__next__', '__repr__', '__str__',
        '_checkClosed', '_checkReadable', '_checkSeekable',
        '_checkWritable', 'buffer', 'close', 'closed', 'detach',
        'encoding', 'errors', 'fileno', 'flush', 'isatty',
        'line_buffering', 'mode', 'name',
        'newlines', 'peek', 'raw', 'read', 'read1', 'readable',
        'readinto', 'readline', 'readlines', 'seek', 'seekable', 'tell',
        'truncate', 'writable', 'write', 'writelines']
else:
    file_spec = file

def mock_open(mock=None, data=None):
    if mock is None:
        mock = MagicMock(spec=file_spec)

    handle = MagicMock(spec=file_spec)
    handle.write.return_value = None
    if data is None:
        handle.__enter__.return_value = handle
    else:
        handle.__enter__.return_value = data
    mock.return_value = handle
    return mock

>>> m = mock_open()
>>> with patch('__main__.open', m, create=True):
...     with open('foo', 'w') as h:
...         h.write('some stuff')
...
>>> m.assert_called_once_with('foo', 'w')
>>> m.mock_calls
[call('foo', 'w'),
 call().__enter__(),
 call().write('some stuff'),
 call().__exit__(None, None, None)]
>>> handle = m()
>>> handle.write.assert_called_once_with('some stuff')


And for reading files, using a StringIO to represent the file handle:

>>> from StringIO import StringIO
>>> m = mock_open(data=StringIO('foo bar baz'))
>>> with patch('__main__.open', m, create=True):
...     with open('foo') as h:
...         result = h.read()
...
>>> m.assert_called_once_with('foo')
>>> assert result == 'foo bar baz'


Note that the StringIO will only be used for the data if open is used as a context manager. If you just configure and use mocks they will work whichever way open is used.

This helper function will be built into mock 0.9.


Source:  http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/weblog/arch_d7_2012_01_07.shtml

CA App Experience Analytics, a whole new level of visibility. Learn more. Brought to you in partnership with CA Technologies.

Topics:

Opinions expressed by DZone contributors are their own.

THE DZONE NEWSLETTER

Dev Resources & Solutions Straight to Your Inbox

Thanks for subscribing!

Awesome! Check your inbox to verify your email so you can start receiving the latest in tech news and resources.

X

{{ parent.title || parent.header.title}}

{{ parent.tldr }}

{{ parent.urlSource.name }}