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Spring Boot Transaction Management Hello World Example

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Spring Boot Transaction Management Hello World Example

In this tutorial, we will be learning what transaction management is and implementing it for an application developed using Spring Boot + JDBC.

· Database Zone ·
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In the previous tutorial — Spring Boot + JDBC Example — we implemented JDBC using Spring boot with MySQL database. In this tutorial, we will be learning what transaction management is and implementing it for an application developed using Spring Boot + JDBC. In the next tutorial, we will be implementing Transaction Propagation using Spring Boot.

Let's Begin

What are database transactions?

A database transaction is a single logical unit of work that accesses and possibly modifies the contents of a database.

Database Transactions

Let's check this for the MySQL database.

  • Open two separate windows for the MySQL database. MySQL Transactions
  • In one MySQL window, create a database named test, and in it, a table named employee.MySQL Database Transactions
  • By default, the transactions are autocommit for the MySQL database. We will disable auto-commit using the following command: SET autocommit = 0 MySQL Database Transaction Autocommit
  • In the first MySQL window, use the following insert commands. If we are using the second MySQL window, do a select for the employee table. We will not see any records. This is because the transactions are still not committed in the first MySQL window.MySQL Database records
  • We now use the commit command in the first MySQL command. If we use the second MySQL window, do a select for the employee table. We will see the two records. MySQL Database commit data

Let's now use the application transaction for the Spring Boot JDBC project.

We will be developing a Spring Boot + JDBC project for employee management. It will have 3 services:

  • EmployeeService — The service will perform Employee Operations
  • HealthInsuranceService — The service will perform Employee Health Insurance Operations
  •  OrganizationService — The service will perform Organization Level Operations, like an employee joining and exiting. It makes use of the EmployeeService and HealthInsuranceService

OrganizationService Employee Join Workflow

OrganizationService Join

OrganizationService Employee Exit Workflow


OrganizationService Exit

An application transaction is a sequence of application actions that are considered a single logical unit by the application. For our application, the joinOrganization method will be considered as one complete transaction. joinOrganization consists of two actions:

  • Persist Employee Information
  • Persist HealthInsurance Information


OrganizationService Exit If for any reason one of the above actions fail, then the other actions should also be rolled back. So if Employee Information gets inserted, but due to some reason persist HealthInsurance is not successful, then Employee Information should also be rolled back. It means it is all or none for a logical unit of work. Similar will be the case for exitOrganization Method, which will be considered one unit of work.Spring Boot Transaction Unit

Initially, we will not be using any transaction management. By default, the spring boot transaction is auto-commit. But this is not a good practice, and we will see why in the next section.

The maven project will be as follows:

Transaction Management Maven Project

 The pom.xml will be as follows:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<groupId>com.javainuse</groupId>
<artifactId>boot-jdbc</artifactId>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
<packaging>jar</packaging>

<name>boot-jdbc</name>
<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

<parent>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
<version>2.1.1.RELEASE</version>
<relativePath /> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
</parent>

<properties>
<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
<project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
<java.version>1.8</java.version>
</properties>

<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
<scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>
</dependencies>

<build>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>


</project>

Create the application.properties as follows:

spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/bootdb?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true&autoReconnect=true&useSSL=false
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=root
spring.datasource.platform=mysql
spring.datasource.initialization-mode=always
logging.level.org.springframework=DEBUG

Create the schema-mysql.sql as follows. This is the initialization script, which is run at the beginning by Spring Boot JDBC:

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS employee;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS employeeHealthInsurance;


CREATE TABLE employee (
  empId VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
  empName VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL
);

CREATE TABLE employeeHealthInsurance (
  empId VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
  healthInsuranceSchemeName VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
  coverageAmount VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL
);

Define the Model class Employee, which will represent the Employee details:

package com.javainuse.model;

public class Employee {

private String empId;
private String empName;

public String getEmpId() {
return empId;
}

public void setEmpId(String empId) {
this.empId = empId;
}

public String getEmpName() {
return empName;
}

public void setEmpName(String empName) {
this.empName = empName;
}

@Override
public String toString() {
return "Employee [empId=" + empId + ", empName=" + empName + "]";
}

}

Create the EmployeeDAO interface for performing Employee operations as follows:

package com.javainuse.dao;

import com.javainuse.model.Employee;

public interface EmployeeDao {
void insertEmployee(Employee cus);

void deleteEmployeeById(String empid);
}

Create the EmployeeDAOImpl, which implements the EmployeeDAO interface as follows. Spring Boot will detect spring-jdbc on the classpath, and MySQL and will create a DataSource and a JdbcTemplate for us automatically. Because such infrastructure is now available and we have no dedicated configuration, a DataSourceTransactionManager will also be created for us.

package com.javainuse.dao.impl;

import javax.annotation.PostConstruct;
import javax.sql.DataSource;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.support.JdbcDaoSupport;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

import com.javainuse.dao.EmployeeDao;
import com.javainuse.model.Employee;

@Repository
public class EmployeeDaoImpl extends JdbcDaoSupport implements EmployeeDao {

@Autowired
DataSource dataSource;

@PostConstruct
private void initialize() {
setDataSource(dataSource);
}

@Override
public void insertEmployee(Employee emp) {
String sql = "INSERT INTO employee " + "(empId, empName) VALUES (?, ?)";
getJdbcTemplate().update(sql, new Object[] { emp.getEmpId(), emp.getEmpName() });
}

@Override
public void deleteEmployeeById(String empid) {
String sql = "DELETE FROM employee WHERE empId = ?";
getJdbcTemplate().update(sql, new Object[] { empid });

}
}

Define the Model class EmployeeHealthInsurance, which will represent the Employee Health Insurance details:

package com.javainuse.model;

public class EmployeeHealthInsurance {

private String empId;
private String healthInsuranceSchemeName;
private int coverageAmount;

public String getEmpId() {
return empId;
}

public void setEmpId(String empId) {
this.empId = empId;
}

public String getHealthInsuranceSchemeName() {
return healthInsuranceSchemeName;
}

public void setHealthInsuranceSchemeName(String healthInsuranceSchemeName) {
this.healthInsuranceSchemeName = healthInsuranceSchemeName;
}

public int getCoverageAmount() {
return coverageAmount;
}

public void setCoverageAmount(int coverageAmount) {
this.coverageAmount = coverageAmount;
}

}

Create the HealthInsuranceDao for performing health insurance operations as follows:

package com.javainuse.dao;

import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;

public interface HealthInsuranceDao {
void registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance);

void deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(String empid);
}

Create the EmployeeHealthInsuranceDAOImpl, which implements HealthInsuranceDao as follows:

package com.javainuse.dao.impl;

import javax.annotation.PostConstruct;
import javax.sql.DataSource;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.support.JdbcDaoSupport;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

import com.javainuse.dao.HealthInsuranceDao;
import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;

@Repository
public class HealthInsuranceDaoImpl extends JdbcDaoSupport implements HealthInsuranceDao {

@Autowired
DataSource dataSource;

@PostConstruct
private void initialize() {
setDataSource(dataSource);
}

@Override
public void registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(EmployeeHealthInsurance emp) {
String sql = "INSERT INTO employeeHealthInsurance "
+ "(empId, healthInsuranceSchemeName, coverageAmount) VALUES (?, ?,?)";
getJdbcTemplate().update(sql,
new Object[] { emp.getEmpId(), emp.getHealthInsuranceSchemeName(), emp.getCoverageAmount() });
}

@Override
public void deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(String empid) {
String sql = "DELETE FROM employeeHealthInsurance WHERE empId = ?";
getJdbcTemplate().update(sql, new Object[] { empid });

}
}

Create the EmployeeService interface for performing employee operations as follows:

package com.javainuse.service;

import com.javainuse.model.Employee;

public interface EmployeeService {
void insertEmployee(Employee emp);

void deleteEmployeeById(String empid);
}

Create the EmployeeServiceImpl, which implements the EmployeeService as follows:

package com.javainuse.service.impl;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import com.javainuse.dao.EmployeeDao;
import com.javainuse.model.Employee;
import com.javainuse.service.EmployeeService;

@Service
public class EmployeeServiceImpl implements EmployeeService {

@Autowired
EmployeeDao employeeDao;

@Override
public void insertEmployee(Employee employee) {
employeeDao.insertEmployee(employee);
}

@Override
public void deleteEmployeeById(String empid) {
employeeDao.deleteEmployeeById(empid);
}

}

Create the HealthInsuranceService interface as follows:

package com.javainuse.service;

import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;

public interface HealthInsuranceService {
void registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance);

void deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(String empid);
}

Create the HealthInsuranceServiceImpl, which implements the HealthInsuranceService as follows:

package com.javainuse.service.impl;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import com.javainuse.dao.HealthInsuranceDao;
import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;
import com.javainuse.service.HealthInsuranceService;

@Service
public class HealthInsuranceServiceImpl implements HealthInsuranceService {

@Autowired
HealthInsuranceDao healthInsuranceDao;

@Override
public void registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance) {
healthInsuranceDao.registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(employeeHealthInsurance);
}

@Override
public void deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(String empid) {
healthInsuranceDao.deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(empid);
}

}

Create the OrganizationService interface as follows:

package com.javainuse.service;

import com.javainuse.model.Employee;
import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;

public interface OrganizationService {

public void joinOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance);

public void leaveOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance);

}

Create the OrganizationServiceImpl, which implements the OrganizationService. It makes use of the EmployeeService and the HealthInsuranceService.

package com.javainuse.service.impl;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import com.javainuse.model.Employee;
import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;
import com.javainuse.service.EmployeeService;
import com.javainuse.service.HealthInsuranceService;
import com.javainuse.service.OrganizationService;

@Service
public class OrganzationServiceImpl implements OrganizationService {

@Autowired
EmployeeService employeeService;

@Autowired
HealthInsuranceService healthInsuranceService;

@Override
public void joinOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance) {
employeeService.insertEmployee(employee);
healthInsuranceService.registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(employeeHealthInsurance);
}

@Override
public void leaveOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance) {
employeeService.deleteEmployeeById(employee.getEmpId());
healthInsuranceService.deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(employeeHealthInsurance.getEmpId());
}
}

Finally, create the Spring Boot Main class as follows:

package com.javainuse;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;

import com.javainuse.model.Employee;
import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;
import com.javainuse.service.OrganizationService;

@SpringBootApplication
public class SpringBootJdbcApplication {

public static void main(String[] args) {
ApplicationContext context = SpringApplication.run(SpringBootJdbcApplication.class, args);
OrganizationService organizationService = context.getBean(OrganizationService.class);

Employee emp = new Employee();
emp.setEmpId("emp1");
emp.setEmpName("emp1");

EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance = new EmployeeHealthInsurance();
employeeHealthInsurance.setEmpId("emp1");
employeeHealthInsurance.setHealthInsuranceSchemeName("premium");
employeeHealthInsurance.setCoverageAmount(20000);

organizationService.joinOrganization(emp, employeeHealthInsurance);
}
}

If we now run the application, the record will be inserted in both the employee table and the employeehealthinsurance table.

Transaction Management Tables

Suppose the employeeService call is successful, but due to some reason, the healthInsuranceService call fails. What should happen in this case? In such a scenario, the entry made in the employee table for the new employee should also be reverted. Let us see how our application will behave in such a scenario. We are manually throwing an unchecked exception after the first service call is made.

package com.javainuse.service.impl;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import com.javainuse.model.Employee;
import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;
import com.javainuse.service.EmployeeService;
import com.javainuse.service.HealthInsuranceService;
import com.javainuse.service.OrganizationService;

@Service
public class OrganzationServiceImpl implements OrganizationService {

@Autowired
EmployeeService employeeService;

@Autowired
HealthInsuranceService healthInsuranceService;

@Override
public void joinOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance) {
employeeService.insertEmployee(employee);
if (employee.getEmpId().equals("emp1")) {
throw new RuntimeException("thowing exception to test transaction rollback");
}
healthInsuranceService.registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(employeeHealthInsurance);
}

@Override
public void leaveOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance) {
employeeService.deleteEmployeeById(employee.getEmpId());
healthInsuranceService.deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(employeeHealthInsurance.getEmpId());
}
}

Lets now run the application.

OrganizationService Transaction Rollback

We can see that there is a record in the employee table but not in the employeehealthinsurance table.

Transaction Management Table Rollback

Now let us implement transaction management. We will be using the Transactional annotation. Transaction is across cutting concern, and it is implemented using AOP in Spring Boot.
Transaction Management Concern

package com.javainuse.service.impl;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Transactional;

import com.javainuse.model.Employee;
import com.javainuse.model.EmployeeHealthInsurance;
import com.javainuse.service.EmployeeService;
import com.javainuse.service.HealthInsuranceService;
import com.javainuse.service.OrganizationService;

@Service
public class OrganzationServiceImpl implements OrganizationService {

@Autowired
EmployeeService employeeService;

@Autowired
HealthInsuranceService healthInsuranceService;

@Override
@Transactional
public void joinOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance) {
employeeService.insertEmployee(employee);
if (employee.getEmpId().equals("emp1")) {
throw new RuntimeException("thowing exception to test transaction rollback");
}
healthInsuranceService.registerEmployeeHealthInsurance(employeeHealthInsurance);
}

@Override
@Transactional
public void leaveOrganization(Employee employee, EmployeeHealthInsurance employeeHealthInsurance) {
employeeService.deleteEmployeeById(employee.getEmpId());
healthInsuranceService.deleteEmployeeHealthInsuranceById(employeeHealthInsurance.getEmpId());
}
}

Spring Boot implicitly creates a proxy for the transaction annotated methods. So for such methods, the proxy acts like a wrapper, which takes care of creating a transaction at the beginning of the method call and committing the transaction after the method is executed.
Transaction Management Proxy

The component intercepts the @Transactional annotated method like the EmployeeService. Now let us run the application again.
OrganizationService Transaction ImplementationIf we now check the employee and the employeehealthinsurance tables, there are no records in both, so our records are getting rolled back correctly.
Transaction Management All Rollback

Topics:
spring boot ,transaction management ,spring boot tutorial ,database ,tutorial ,db tutorial ,hello world example

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