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Spring OAuth2 With JWT Sample

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Spring OAuth2 With JWT Sample

Spring Security is an extensible framework for authentication, including support for OAuth 2 and JSON Web Token, two popular choices.

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Some time ago, we published one article sharing a custom approach to implementing a stateless session in a cloud environment. Today, let's explore another popular use case of setting up OAuth 2 authentication for a Spring Boot application. In this example, we will use JSON Web Token (JWT) as the format of the Oauth2 token.

This sample was developed partly based on the official sample of Spring Security OAuth 2. However, we will focus on understanding the principle of the OAuth 2 request. The source code is at  https://github.com/tuanngda/spring-boot-oauth2-demo.git

Background

OAuth 2 and JWT 

We will not go to detail on when you want to use OAuth 2 and JWT. In general, you may want to adopt OAuth if you need to allow other people to build a front end app for your services. We focus on OAuth 2 and JWT because they are the most popular authentication framework and protocol in the market.

Spring Security OAuth 2

Spring Security OAuth 2 is an implementation of OAuth 2 that is built on top of Spring Security, which is a very extensible authentication framework.

 Spring Security includes 2 basic steps: creating an authentication object for each request, and applying the check depending on the configured authentication. The first step is done in a multi-layer Security Filter. Depending on the configuration, each layer can help to create authentication, including basic authentication, digest authentication, form authentication, or any custom authentication that we choose to implement ourselves. The client side session we built in the previous article is one custom authentication and Spring Security OAuth 2 is another custom authentication.

Because, in this example, our application both provides and consumes a token, Spring Security OAuth 2 should not be the sole authentication layer for the application. We need another authentication mechanism to protect the token provider endpoint.

For a cluster environment, the token or the secret to sign the token (for JWT) is supposed to be persisted, but we skip this step to simplify the example. Similarly, the user authentication and client identities are all hard-coded.

System Design Overview

In our application, we need to setup 3 components:

  • Authorization Endpoint and Token Endpoint to help in providing the OAuth 2 token.
  • A WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter, which is an authentication layer with hard-coded order of 3 (according to Dave Syer). This authentication layer will set up authentication and principal for any request that contains an OAuth 2 token.
  • Another authentication mechanism to protect the token endpoint and other resources if the token is missing. In this sample, we choose basic authentication for its simplicity when writing tests. As we do not specify the order, it will take the default value of 100. With Spring Security, the lower the order, the higher priority, so we should expect OAuth 2 to come before basic authentication in the FilterChainProxy. Inspecting in the IDE will prove that our setup is correct.



In the above picture, Oauth2AuthenticationProcessingFilter appears in front of BasicAuthenticationFilter.

Authorization Server Configuration

Here is our config for Authorization and Token Endpoint


@Configuration
@EnableAuthorizationServer
public class AuthorizationServerConfiguration extends AuthorizationServerConfigurerAdapter {

    @Value("${resource.id:spring-boot-application}")
    private String resourceId;

    @Value("${access_token.validity_period:3600}")
    int accessTokenValiditySeconds = 3600;

    @Autowired
    private AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;

    @Bean
    public JwtAccessTokenConverter accessTokenConverter() {
        return new JwtAccessTokenConverter();
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(AuthorizationServerEndpointsConfigurer endpoints) throws Exception {
        endpoints
            .authenticationManager(this.authenticationManager)
            .accessTokenConverter(accessTokenConverter());
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(AuthorizationServerSecurityConfigurer oauthServer) throws Exception {
        oauthServer.tokenKeyAccess("isAnonymous() || hasAuthority('ROLE_TRUSTED_CLIENT')")
            .checkTokenAccess("hasAuthority('ROLE_TRUSTED_CLIENT')");
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(ClientDetailsServiceConfigurer clients) throws Exception {
        clients.inMemory()
            .withClient("normal-app")
                .authorizedGrantTypes("authorization_code", "implicit")
                .authorities("ROLE_CLIENT")
                .scopes("read", "write")
                .resourceIds(resourceId)
                .accessTokenValiditySeconds(accessTokenValiditySeconds)
        .and()
            .withClient("trusted-app")
                .authorizedGrantTypes("client_credentials", "password")
                .authorities("ROLE_TRUSTED_CLIENT")
                .scopes("read", "write")
                .resourceIds(resourceId)
                .accessTokenValiditySeconds(accessTokenValiditySeconds)
                .secret("secret");
    }
}


There are few things worth noticing about this implementation.

  • Setting up a JWT token is as simple as using JwtAccessTokenConverter. Because we never set up the signing key, it is randomly generated. If we intended to deploy our application to the cloud, it is a must to sync the signing key across all authorization servers.
  • Instead of creating an authentication manager, we choose to inject an existing authentication manager from the Spring container. With this step, we can share the authentication manager with the Basic Authentication filter.
  • It is possible to have a trusted application and an untrusted application. Each trusted application can have its own secret. This is necessary for granting of a client credential authorization. Except for client credentials, all the other three grants require a resource owner's credential.
  • We allow anonymous for checking the token endpoint. With this configuration, the checking token is accessible without basic authentication or OAuth 2 token. 

Resource Server Configuration

Here is our configuration for Resource Server Configuration


@Configuration
@EnableResourceServer
public class ResourceServerConfiguration extends ResourceServerConfigurerAdapter {

    @Value("${resource.id:spring-boot-application}")
    private String resourceId;

    @Override
    public void configure(ResourceServerSecurityConfigurer resources) {
        resources.resourceId(resourceId);
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
         http.requestMatcher(new OAuthRequestedMatcher())
                .authorizeRequests()
                 .antMatchers(HttpMethod.OPTIONS).permitAll()
                    .anyRequest().authenticated();
    }

    private static class OAuthRequestedMatcher implements RequestMatcher {
        public boolean matches(HttpServletRequest request) {
            String auth = request.getHeader("Authorization");
            // Determine if the client request contained an OAuth Authorization
            boolean haveOauth2Token = (auth != null) && auth.startsWith("Bearer");
            boolean haveAccessToken = request.getParameter("access_token")!=null;
   return haveOauth2Token || haveAccessToken;
        }
    }

}


 Here are few things to notice:

  • The OAuthRequestedMatcher is added in so that the OAuth filter will only process OAuth 2 requests. We added this in so that an unauthorized request will be denied at the Basic Authentication layer instead of the OAuth 2 layer. This may not make any difference in terms of functionality, but we added it in for usability. For the client, they will received a 401 HTTP Status with this new header versus the old header:
    • WWW-Authenticate:Basic realm="Realm"
    • WWW-Authenticate:Bearer realm="spring-boot-application", error="unauthorized", error_description="Full authentication is required to access this resource"
  • With the new response header, a browser will auto prompt user for the username and password. If you do not want the resource to be accessible by any other authentication mechanism, this step is not necessary.
  • Some browsers like Chrome like to send OPTIONS request to look for CORS before making AJAX call. Therefore, it is better to always allow OPTIONS requests.

Basic Authentication Security Configuration

As mentioned earlier, we need to protect the token provider endpoint.


@Configuration
@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
@EnableWebSecurity
public class SecurityConfiguration extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Autowired
    public void globalUserDetails(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
        auth.inMemoryAuthentication().withUser("user").password("password").roles("USER").and().withUser("admin")
                .password("password").roles("USER", "ADMIN");
    }

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
     http
        .authorizeRequests()
            .antMatchers(HttpMethod.OPTIONS).permitAll()
            .anyRequest().authenticated()
            .and().httpBasic()
            .and().csrf().disable();
    }

    @Override
    @Bean
    public AuthenticationManager authenticationManagerBean() throws Exception {
        return super.authenticationManagerBean();
    }
}

There are few things to notice:


  • We expose the AuthenticationManager bean so that our two authentication security adapters can share a single authentication manager.
  • Spring Security CSRF works seamlessly with JSP, but is a hassle for a REST API. Because we want this sample app to be used as a base for users to develop their own application, we turned CSRF off and added in a CORS filter so that it can be used right away.

Testing

We wrote one test scenario for each authorization grant type following exactly OAuth 2 specifications. Because Spring Security OAuth 2 is an implementation based on Spring Security framework, our interest is in seeing how the underlying authentication and principal are constructed.

Before summarizing the outcome of the experiment, let's take a quick look at some things to notice:

  • Most of the requests to the token provider endpoints were sent using POST, but they include the user credentials as parameters. Even though we put this credential as part of the url for convenience, never do this in your OAuth 2 client.
  • We created 2 endpoints /resources/principal and /resources/roles to capture the principal and authority for Oauth 2 authentication.

Here is our setup:

User
Type
Authorities
Credential
user
resource owner
ROLE_USER
Y
admin
resource owner
ROLE_ADMIN
Y
normal-app
client
ROLE_CLIENT
N
trusted-app
client
ROLE_TRUSTED_CLIENT
Y
Here is what we found out:
Grant Type
User
Client
Principal
Authorities
Authorization Code
user
normal-app
user
ROLE_USER
Client Credentials
NA
trusted-app
trusted-app
No Authority
Implicit
user
normal-app
user
ROLE_USER
Resource Owner Password Credentials
user
trusted-app
user
ROLE_USER

This result is pretty much as expected except for Client Credentials. Interestingly, even though the client retrieves the OAuth 2 token by client credential, the approved request still does not have any client authorities but only the client credential. I think this make sense, because the token from the Implicit Grant Type cannot be reused.

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Topics:
json web token ,oauth2 ,spring

Published at DZone with permission of Anh Tuan Nguyen, DZone MVB. See the original article here.

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