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Testcontainers and Spring Boot

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Testcontainers and Spring Boot

Spring Boot and TestContainers: A match made in heaven? Let's see how you can utilize both to help use containers in your unit tests.

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Testcontainers is just awesome! It provides a very convenient way to start up and CLEANLY tear down docker containers in JUnit tests. This feature is very useful for integration testing of applications against real databases and any other resource for which a docker image is available.

My objective is to demonstrate a sample test for a JPA based Spring Boot Application using Testcontainers. The sample is based on an example at the Testcontainer GitHub repo.

Sample App

The Spring Boot based application is straightforward. It is a Spring Data JPA based application with the web layer written using Spring Web Flux. The entire sample is available at my GitHub repo and it may be easier to just follow the code directly there.

The City entity being persisted looks like this (using Kotlin):

import javax.persistence.Entity
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue
import javax.persistence.Id

@Entity
data class City(
        @Id @GeneratedValue var id: Long? = null,
        val name: String,
        val country: String,
        val pop: Long
) {
    constructor() : this(id = null, name = "", country = "", pop = 0L)
}


All that is needed to provide a repository to manage this entity is the following interface, thanks to the excellent Spring Data JPA project:

import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository
import samples.geo.domain.City

interface CityRepo: JpaRepository<City, Long>


I will not cover the web layer here as it is not relevant to the discussion.

Testing the Repository

Spring Boot provides a feature called the Slice tests, which is a neat way to test different horizontal slices of the application. A test for the CityRepo repository looks like this:


import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.DataJpaTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import samples.geo.domain.City;
import samples.geo.repo.CityRepo;

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@DataJpaTest
public class CitiesWithEmbeddedDbTest {

    @Autowired
    private CityRepo cityRepo;

    @Test
    public void testWithDb() {
        City city1 = cityRepo.save(new City(null, "city1", "USA", 20000L));
        City city2 = cityRepo.save(new City(null, "city2", "USA", 40000L));

        assertThat(city1)
                .matches(c -> c.getId() != null && c.getName() == "city1" && c.getPop() == 20000L);

        assertThat(city2)
                .matches(c -> c.getId() != null && c.getName() == "city2" && c.getPop() == 40000L);

        assertThat(cityRepo.findAll()).containsExactly(city1, city2);
    }

}


The"@DataJpaTest" annotation starts up an embedded h2 databases, configures JPA, and loads up any Spring Data JPA repositories(CityRepo in this instance).

This kind of a test works well, considering that JPA provides the database abstraction, and if JPA is used correctly, the code should be portable across any supported databases. However, assuming that this application is expected to be run against a PostgreSQL in production, ideally, there would be some level of integration testing done against the database, which is where TestContainer fits in. It provides a way to boot up PostgreSQL as a Docker container.

Testcontainers

The same repository test using Testcontainers looks like this:

import org.junit.ClassRule;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.DataJpaTest;
import org.springframework.boot.test.util.TestPropertyValues;
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextInitializer;
import org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.test.context.ContextConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.testcontainers.containers.PostgreSQLContainer;
import samples.geo.domain.City;
import samples.geo.repo.CityRepo;

import java.time.Duration;

import static org.assertj.core.api.Assertions.assertThat;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@DataJpaTest
@ContextConfiguration(initializers = {CitiesWithPostgresContainerTest.Initializer.class})
public class CitiesWithPostgresContainerTest {

    @ClassRule
    public static PostgreSQLContainer postgreSQLContainer =
            (PostgreSQLContainer) new PostgreSQLContainer("postgres:10.4")
                    .withDatabaseName("sampledb")
                    .withUsername("sampleuser")
                    .withPassword("samplepwd")
                    .withStartupTimeout(Duration.ofSeconds(600));

    @Autowired
    private CityRepo cityRepo;

    @Test
    public void testWithDb() {
        City city1 = cityRepo.save(new City(null, "city1", "USA", 20000L));
        City city2 = cityRepo.save(new City(null, "city2", "USA", 40000L));

        assertThat(city1)
                .matches(c -> c.getId() != null && c.getName() == "city1" && c.getPop() == 20000L);

        assertThat(city2)
                .matches(c -> c.getId() != null && c.getName() == "city2" && c.getPop() == 40000L);

        assertThat(cityRepo.findAll()).containsExactly(city1, city2);
    }

    static class Initializer
            implements ApplicationContextInitializer<ConfigurableApplicationContext> {
        public void initialize(ConfigurableApplicationContext configurableApplicationContext) {
            TestPropertyValues.of(
                    "spring.datasource.url=" + postgreSQLContainer.getJdbcUrl(),
                    "spring.datasource.username=" + postgreSQLContainer.getUsername(),
                    "spring.datasource.password=" + postgreSQLContainer.getPassword()
            ).applyTo(configurableApplicationContext.getEnvironment());
        }
    }
}


The core of the code looks the same as the previous test, but the repository here is being tested against a real PostgreSQL database. To go into a little more detail:

A PostgreSQL container is being started up using a JUnit Class Rule, which gets triggered before any of the tests are run. This dependency is being pulled in using a Gradle dependency of the following type:

    testCompile("org.testcontainers:postgresql:1.7.3")


The class rule starts up a PostgreSQL docker container(postgres:10.4) and configures a database and credentials for the database. Now from Spring Boot's perspective, these details need to be passed on the application as properties BEFORE Spring starts creating a test context for the test to run in, and this is done for the test using an ApplicationContextInitializer, this is invoked by Spring very early in the lifecycle of a Spring Context.

The custom ApplicationContextInitializer, which sets the database name, URL, and user credentials is hooked up to the test using this code:

...
import org.springframework.test.context.ContextConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
...

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@DataJpaTest
@ContextConfiguration(initializers = {CitiesWithPostgresContainerTest.Initializer.class})
public class CitiesWithPostgresContainerTest {
...


With this boilerplate set up in place, Testcontainer and Spring Boot slice test will take over running the test. More importantly, Testcontainers also takes care of tear down and the JUnit Class Rule ensures that once the test is complete, the containers are stopped and removed.

Conclusion

This was a whirlwind tour of Testcontainers, and there is far more to Testcontainers than what I have covered here, but I hope this provides a taste for what is feasible using this excellent library and how to configure it with Spring Boot.

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Topics:
spring boot ,java ,testcontainers ,containers ,devops ,integration ,unit tests ,junit ,jpa

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