Batch Processing vs. Stream Processing: Why Batch Is Dying and Streaming Takes Over
This article will explore why stream processing is taking over, including its advantages over batch processing.
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In the digital age, data is the new currency and is being used everywhere. From social media to IoT devices, businesses are generating more data than ever before.
With this data comes the challenge of processing it in a timely and efficient way.
Companies worldwide are investing in technologies that can help them better process, analyze, and use the data they are collecting to better serve their customers and stay ahead of their competitors.
One of the most important decisions organizations make when it comes to data processing is whether to use stream or batch processing. Stream processing is quickly becoming the go-to option for many companies because of its ability to provide real-time insights and immediately actionable results. With the right stream processing platform, companies can easily unlock the value of their data and use it to gain a competitive edge. This article will explore why stream processing is taking over, including its advantages over batch processing, such as its scalability, cost-effectiveness, and flexibility.
Let’s recap some of the basics first.
Data processing is the process of transforming raw data into meaningful and useful information. It involves a wide range of activities, including data collection, cleaning, integration, analysis, and visualization. It is an essential part of the analysis and decision-making process in many industries, including finance, healthcare, education, engineering, and business.
Data processing can be divided into two main categories: Manual Data Processing and Automated Data Processing.
Manual data processing involves the use of manual input, paper forms, manual calculations, and the entry of data into software programs. Manual data processing is often slow and error-prone, but it can be beneficial when dealing with large amounts of data or complex tasks. Automated data processing, however, is faster and more efficient than manual data processing. Automated data processing uses algorithms and software to automate the processing of data. This includes activities such as sorting, filtering, and summarizing data.
Data processing can also be classified into several types. These include batch processing, real-time processing, and stream processing. Multi-Processing, and Time-sharing.
- Batch Processing: This is a type of data processing that involves the execution of a series of predefined instructions or programs on a batch of data. It is typically used for tasks that require large amounts of data to be processed, such as data mining or data warehousing.
- Real-time processing: This is a type of data processing that involves the continuous, real-time analysis of data streams. It is typically used for applications that require immediate analysis and response to incoming data, such as fraud detection and consumer/user activity.
- Stream processing: This is a type of data processing that involves the continuous, real-time analysis of data streams. It is similar to real-time processing but typically involves more complex operations and is capable of handling large volumes of data with low latency.
- Multi-Processing: Multi-processing is a type of data processing that involves multiple processors working simultaneously on different tasks. Multi-processing is often used to speed up the processing of large amounts of data. By using multiple processors, the same task can be completed faster than if it were done on a single processor.
- Time-sharing: Time-sharing is a type of data processing that allows multiple users to access the same computer or system simultaneously. Time-sharing systems provide better efficiency and performance than batch processing and are often used in applications such as online banking, e-commerce, and web hosting.
Overall, data processing is an essential part of modern business and society and is critical for turning raw data into useful information that can be used to make informed decisions and drive business growth.
Let’s discuss stream and batch data processing in detail.
What Is Stream Processing?
Stream processing is a type of data processing that involves continuous, real-time analysis of data streams. It is a way of handling large volumes of data that are generated by various sources, such as sensors, financial transactions, or social media feeds, in real-time.
Advantages of Stream Processing
One of the primary advantages of stream processing is its real-time nature. Because data is processed as it is received, stream processing allows for faster analysis and decision-making. This can be especially useful in applications where time is of the essence, such as in financial trading or emergency response.
Another advantage of stream processing is its scalability. Because stream processing systems are designed to handle large volumes of data in real time, they can easily scale to handle increases in data volume without compromising on performance. This makes them well-suited to applications that deal with large amounts of data, such as internet of things (IoT) applications or social media analysis.
Stream processing also helps organizations save money by reducing costs associated with storing large amounts of data. Stream processing systems can store only the data that is required for processing, eliminating the need to store and manage large datasets.
Stream processing is more secure than traditional batch processing systems. Stream processing systems use encryption techniques to ensure that data is kept secure and confidential. This helps organizations to ensure that their data remains safe and secure.
Challenges of Stream Processing
Overall, stream processing is a powerful tool for handling large volumes of data in real time, but it also comes with its own set of challenges.
One of the main challenges of stream processing is ensuring the accuracy and consistency of the data. Because stream processing involves continuous analysis of data in real time, any errors or inconsistencies in the data can quickly propagate throughout the system, leading to incorrect results. This can be particularly problematic in complex systems with many different data sources and can require careful design and management to ensure the quality of the data.
Another challenge of stream processing is dealing with late or out-of-order data. In stream processing, data is often generated by multiple sources, and it can arrive at different times or in a different order than expected. This can make it difficult to accurately process the data and can require the use of specialized techniques to handle such situations. For example, some stream processing systems use techniques such as windowing or buffering to delay the processing of data until all necessary information is available or to reorder data if it arrives out of sequence.
A third challenge associated with stream processing is maintaining the performance of the system. Because stream processing involves continuous analysis of data, it can put a heavy load on the underlying infrastructure, which can impact the overall performance of the system. This can be particularly problematic in systems with high volumes of data or with complex data processing pipelines. To address this challenge, stream processing systems often use techniques such as parallelism, load balancing, and data partitioning to distribute the workload across multiple machines and improve the overall performance of the system.
The challenges stated above can be addressed through careful design and management of the system, as well as the use of specialized techniques to ensure the accuracy and performance of the data processing pipeline.
Stream processing can be used in many different use cases and can be applied to a variety of industries, including finance, retail, healthcare, telecommunications, and IoT.
Stream processing can be used to analyze market data in real time and detect fraud. By analyzing customer transactions and patterns, banks can quickly identify suspicious activity and alert authorities. This helps reduce the potential losses caused by fraudulent activities.
Stream processing can be used to provide customers with personalized offers and recommendations. By analyzing customer data in real-time, retailers can create targeted campaigns that are tailored to each individual customer’s preferences. This allows them to offer more relevant products and services, which can lead to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Stream processing can be used to monitor patient health in real time. By collecting data from various medical devices and sensors, healthcare providers can quickly identify any changes in a patient’s health status. This can help them detect and treat conditions before they become severe and costly.
Stream processing can be used to monitor network performance in real time. By analyzing data from various telecommunication networks, service providers can quickly identify any issues or outages and take corrective action. This helps them maintain a high level of service quality and provide reliable connections to their customers.
Internet of Things (IoT)
Stream processing can also be used to collect and analyze data from connected devices. This can help organizations gain valuable insights into how their devices are performing and make informed decisions about optimizing their operations.
What Is Batch Data Processing?
Batch data processing is a method of executing a series of tasks in a predetermined sequence. It involves dividing a large amount of data into smaller, more manageable units called batches, which are processed independently and in parallel. In batch processing, a group of transactions or data is collected over a period of time and then processed all at once, typically overnight or during a maintenance window. Batch processing is often used in large-scale computing systems and data processing applications, such as payroll, invoicing, and inventory management.
Advantages of Batch Processing
There are several advantages to using batch processing:
Improved Effiency and Speed
Batch processing allows for the concurrent execution of multiple jobs, which can significantly improve the speed and efficiency of processing large amounts of data. By processing multiple transactions or data sets at once, batch processing can reduce the amount of time it takes to complete a task, allowing organizations to complete more work in less time.
Batch data processing can also help to reduce costs by reducing the need for manual intervention and labor. By automating repetitive tasks, organizations can reduce the amount of time and resources that are required to complete a task, leading to cost savings.
Batch processing can help to increase the accuracy of data processing by ensuring that all transactions are processed consistently, according to predefined rules and procedures. This can help to reduce the potential for errors and inconsistencies, leading to more accurate and reliable results.
Batch processing can also help to improve the security of data processing by limiting access to sensitive data to authorized personnel only. By controlling access to data and processing it in a secure environment, organizations can help to prevent unauthorized access and protect against potential security threats.
Batch data processing is highly scalable, meaning that it can be easily adapted to handle increased volumes of data without a significant impact on performance. This allows organizations to easily and efficiently process large amounts of data as their needs evolve without the need for additional resources or infrastructure.
Challenges of Batch Processing
There are also some challenges associated with batch processing.
One of the main challenges is the need for careful planning and coordination. Since batch processing is executed in a predetermined sequence, it is important to carefully plan and coordinate the execution of tasks to ensure that they are completed in the correct order.
Another challenge of batch processing is that it can be time-consuming. Since data is collected and processed in large quantities, it can take a significant amount of time to complete a batch. This can be especially problematic for businesses that need to process data in real time, as batch processing may not be fast enough to keep up with the demands of the business.
Batch processing can also be more complex to implement and maintain, as it requires the development and management of batch schedules and processes. This can require additional resources and expertise, which can be a challenge for some organizations.
Another challenge of batch processing is the limited visibility it provides into the status of individual transactions or data items. With batch processing, it is often difficult to see the status of a particular transaction or data item within the batch, which can make it challenging to identify and address any issues that may arise.
Batch processing can also present challenges when it comes to maintaining data integrity. If a batch fails, it can be difficult to determine which data items were processed and which were not, which can lead to data loss or errors.
In addition, batch processing can be error-prone. Since data is catered in large quantities, it can be difficult to catch and correct errors in the batch. This can lead to inaccurate or incomplete results, which can be damaging to a business.
Batch processing is used in data analytics to process large amounts of data and generate insights or reports. For example, a company might use batch processing to analyze customer data and generate reports on customer behavior or preferences.
ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) Processes
Batch processing is often used in ETL (extract, transform, load) processes to extract data from various sources, transform it into a format suitable for analysis or reporting, and load it into a data warehouse or other system.
Batch processing is also used in inventory management systems to process orders, track inventory levels, and generate reports. By processing data in a batch, it is possible to manage and track inventory levels.
Batch processing is commonly used in the financial industry to process large numbers of transactions, such as credit card transactions or stock trades. For example, a bank might use batch processing to process transactions from multiple branches or ATM machines and then update customer accounts accordingly.
Batch processing is also used in the development of online services, such as web applications or mobile apps. For example, a social media platform might use batch processing to process large amounts of data in order to generate recommendations for users or to generate reports on user behavior.
Batch Processing vs. Stream Processing: An Overview
When it comes to hardware, there are some key differences between batch processing and stream processing. Batch data processing typically requires more powerful hardware, as it needs to be able to handle large amounts of data all at once. This can include powerful servers, high-capacity storage systems, and other specialized hardware.
On the other hand, stream processing typically requires less powerful hardware. Since data is processed in real-time, it does not need to be stored for later processing. This means that stream processing systems can be more lightweight and can use less powerful hardware.
Overall, the type of hardware needed for batch processing and stream processing depends on the specific requirements of the system and the amount of data being processed.
When it comes to performance, batch data processing is generally less efficient than stream processing. This is because batch processing requires data to be collected and stored before it can be processed, which can take up a significant amount of time and resources. In contrast, stream processing allows data to be processed as it is generated, which can save time and improve efficiency.
Also, Stream Processing can handle large volumes of data with minimal latency. This is because stream processing systems are designed to process data in small chunks as it is generated rather than waiting for a large batch of data to be collected before processing it. This allows stream processing systems to quickly and efficiently process data without the need for large amounts of storage or expensive hardware.
One of the main differences between batch processing and stream processing is the type of data they are designed to handle. Batch processing is typically used for data sets that are large and static, such as historical records or logs. In contrast, stream processing is typically used for data sets that are large but constantly changing, such as real-time sensor data.
Another important difference between batch processing and stream processing is the way they handle data. Batch processing systems typically operate on data that is stored in a database or file system. On the other hand, stream processing systems operate on data that is generated in real-time or near-real-time.
One more area where these two data processing methods differ is the type of analysis they are designed to perform. Batch processing systems are designed to perform complex, data-intensive analyses, such as machine learning and predictive modeling.
While stream processing systems are suitable for performing simple, low-latency analyses, such as filtering and aggregation, because it is designed to process data in small chunks, which limits their ability to perform complex analysis.
There are several platforms available for both batch processing and stream processing, each with its own unique features and capabilities.
Some of the most popular platforms for batch processing include:
Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark are open-source distributed computing platforms that are widely used for big data processing and analysis.
For stream processing, some popular platforms include:
Apache Flink and Apache Storm are also open-source distributed computing platforms. These platforms are often used for applications such as monitoring systems and real-time analytics.
In addition to these open-source platforms, there are also several commercial platforms available for both batch data processing and stream processing.
Some examples of commercial batch processing platforms include and, which are distributed computing platforms that are designed for big data processing and analysis.
Let’s put some light on these commercial platforms!
Cloudera: Cloudera is a leading provider of enterprise data cloud solutions, including software and services for data engineering, data warehousing, machine learning, and analytics. Cloudera provides an enterprise data platform to customers of all sizes, enabling them to store, process and analyze their data quickly, reliably, and securely. Cloudera also offers an array of professional services, such as consulting and training, to help customers get the most out of their data.
MapR: MapR is a distributed data platform for big data applications that provide fast and reliable access to data. It combines an optimized version of the Apache Hadoop open-source software with enterprise-grade features such as high availability, disaster recovery, and global replication. MapR also provides NoSQL databases, streaming analytics, and machine learning capabilities.
For stream processing, some popular commercial platforms include Confluent, Memphis, and Databricks, which are also distributed computing platforms. These platforms are often used for applications such as fraud detection and real-time recommendation engines.
Confluent: Confluent is an enterprise streaming platform built on Apache Kafka. It provides a range of services to support the development, deployment, and management of streaming data pipelines. It includes features such as real-time data integration, stream processing, and analytics. It also enables organizations to build mission-critical streaming applications.
Memphis: Memphis.dev is an open-source, real-time data processing platform
that provides end-to-end support for in-app streaming use cases using Memphis distributed message broker. Memphis’ platform requires zero ops, enables rapid development, and extreme cost reduction, eliminates coding barriers, and saves a great amount of dev time for data-oriented developers and data engineers.
Databricks: Databricks is a cloud-based platform for data engineering, machine learning, and analytics. It provides an integrated environment for working with big data that simplifies the process of managing and analyzing large datasets. It allows users to easily create data pipelines and complex analytics applications and supports popular open-source libraries such as Apache Spark, MLlib, and TensorFlow.
Overall, the choice of platform for batch processing or stream processing depends on the specific requirements of the application. Open-source platforms are often a good choice for applications that require flexibility and customization, while commercial platforms may be more suitable for applications that require support and scalability.
Why Batch Is Dying, and Streaming Takes Over?
There are several reasons why streaming has become more popular and why batch processing may be declining in popularity.
One reason is the increasing demand for real-time processing. In today’s fast-paced world, many organizations require the ability to process data in real time in order to respond to changing conditions and make timely decisions.
Another reason is the increasing availability of streaming technologies and tools. In the past, streaming was more difficult and expensive to implement, but today there is a wide range of tools and technologies available that make it easier and more cost-effective to implement streaming solutions. Also, with streaming, it is possible to track the processing of data in real-time, which can be beneficial for debugging and monitoring purposes.
This blog post walks through the basics of stream and batch processing, lists some of the advantages and challenges associated with these data processing methods, and then also compares them in terms of performance, data sets, analysis, hardware, and some other features.
Published at DZone with permission of Shoham Roditi Elimelech. See the original article here.
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