Cassandra is a great NoSQL product. It provides near real-time performance for designed queries and enables high availability with linear scale growth as it uses the eventually consistent paradigm.
In this post, we will focus on some best practices for this great product.
How Many Nodes Do You Need?
The number of nodes should be odd in order to support votes during downtime/network cut.
The minimal number should be 5, as a lower number (such as 3) will result in high stress on the machines during node failure (replication factor is 2 in this case, and each node will have to read 50% of the data and write 50% of data). When you select the replication factor to 3, each node will need to read 15% of the data and write 15% of the data. Therefore, recovery will be much faster, and there is a higher chance that performance and availability will not be affected.
How Big Should Your C* Instances Be?
C*, like any other data store, loves fast disks (SSD) — although its SSTables and INSERT only architecture as much memory as your data. In particular, your nodes should be 32GB to 512GB RAM each (and not less than 8GB in production and 4GB in development). This is a common issue since C* was coded in Java.
C* is also CPU-intensive, and 16 cores are recommended (and not less than 2 cores for development).
Repair and Replace Strategy
nodetool is probably one of the most common tasks on a C* cluster.
- You can run it on a single node or on a whole cluster.
- Repair should run before reaching the
gc_grace_seconds(default 10 days) that will remove tombstones.
- You should run it during off-peak hours (probably during the weekend) if you keep with the
- You can take this numbers down, but it will affect your backup and recovery strategy (see details about recovery from failure using hints).
You can optimize the repair process by using the following flags:
-seq: Repair token after token: slower and safer.
-local: Run only on the local data center to avoid downtime of both in any case.
-parallel: Fastest mode — run on all data centers in parallel.
-j: The number parallel jobs on a node (1-4); using more threads will stress the nodes but will help end the task faster.
We recommend selecting your strategy based on the height of your peaks and the sensitivity of your data. If your system has the same level of traffic 24/7, consider doing things slowly and sequentially. The higher your peaks, the more stress you should put on your system during off peak hours.
There are several backup strategies you can have:
- Utilize your storage/cloud storage snapshot capabilities.
- Use C*
nodetoolsnapshot command. This one is very similar to your storage capabilities but enables backup only the data and not the whole machine.
- Use C* incremental backup that will enable point-in-time recovery. This process is not a daily process, but requires copying and managing small files all the time
- Mix C* snapshots and incremental backups to minimize the time of recovery while keeping the point of time recovery option.
- Snapshots and commit log: complex process to recover that supports point in time recovery, as you need to reply the commit log.
We recommend using the daily snapshot if your data is not critical, if you want to minimize your Ops costs, or if there's a mix of C* snapshots and incremental backup when you must have a point in time recovery.
There are several approaches to go with.
- Commerical software
- DataStax OpsCenter solution: Like almost every other OSS, DataStax provides the commercial version of C* and a paid-for management and monitoring solution
- Commercial services including:
- NewRelic: Provides a C* plugin as part of its platform
- DataDog: With a nice hint on what should be monitored.
- Use open source with common integration:
If you choose a DIY solution, there some hints that you can find in the commercial products and services and also in the following resources:
- Heap usage: 85% (warning), 95% (error).
- GC ConcurrentMarkSweep: 9 (warning), 15 Error.
Our recommendation is starting (when possible) with an existing service/product, getting experience with the metrics that are relevant for your environment, and if needed, implementing based on them your own setup.
Lightweight transactions are meant to enable case studies that require sequence (or some type of transactions) in an eventually consistent environment.
Yet notice that it's a minimal solution that is aimed to serialize tasks in a single table. We believe that this is a good solution, but the if your data requires a consistent solution, you should avoid eventually consistent solutions and look for SQL solutions (with native transactions) or a NoSQL solution like MongoDB.
C* is indeed a great product. However, it definitely is not an entry-level solution for data storage, and managing it requires skills and expertise.