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Dynamic Class Enhancement with CGLib

Popular libraries like Spring use CGLib to dynamically generate classes at runtime. Understanding how it works can help you parse those notorious stack traces when something goes wrong.

· Java Zone

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This is the third article on the subject of dynamic classes in Java. In the first article I discussed proxy capabilities built into the Java standard library. In the second article I discussed using CGLib in order to enhance a concrete class through a dynamic subclass. In this article I want to cover a slightly more complicated example using CGLib to show off some of its other capabilities.

With the previous example, we created an enhanced class to add auditing capabilities. The class we were enhancing was a concrete class with no interfaces, and we were content to make a single instance of it, because it was a (fake) service. However, what if we want to apply the enhanced behavior to many different kinds of classes, and access the enhanced behavior through an interface so it's easy to use from regular code? In that case, there are a couple more things we need to do.

For this article, I will be showing an example that allows any JavaBean class (i.e. a class that follows the JavaBeans approach with getter and setter methods) to become "observable" so any listener can register with it to be notified of property changes.

Example Code

I will work through each of the classes in this example, but the whole thing is available on GitHub.

First, we need a basic JavaBean class. This doesn't have anything special about it; it just follows the getter/setter convention.

public class SampleBean {

    private String stringValue;
    private int intValue;

    public String getStringValue() {
        return stringValue;

    public void setStringValue(String stringValue) {
        this.stringValue = stringValue;

    public int getIntValue() {
        return intValue;

    public void setIntValue(int intValue) {
        this.intValue = intValue;


If we were to make this bean "observable" manually, we could leverage the PropertyChangeSupport class built into Java to manage the listeners and property change events for us. We would have to provide methods to add and remove listeners, passing the call through to the same method in PropertyChangeSupport. We would also have to modify all of the setter methods to fire a property change event to the listeners. We would then have to add that similar logic to all of our bean classes. Even if we have them all inherit from some base class, we still need to add the logic to every unique setter method.

Instead, let's look at a way to do this where we only have to implement the logic once. To make things easier, I'm going to reuse the existing PropertyChangeSupport and PropertyChangeEvent classes from the standard library. However, I'm going to declare an Observableinterface, because it doesn't exist in the standard library. Still regular Java here, nothing dynamic yet:

import java.beans.PropertyChangeListener;

public interface Observable {

    void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener);

    void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener);


What we want is for all of our bean classes to appear to implement this interface so listeners can register. But first, we have one other helper class for this example. We need an example listener for property changes, so we'll just make one that prints out whatever events it receives:

import java.beans.PropertyChangeEvent;
import java.beans.PropertyChangeListener;

import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;

public class LoggingPropertyChangeListener implements PropertyChangeListener {

    private static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(LoggingPropertyChangeListener.class);

    public void propertyChange(PropertyChangeEvent evt) {
        LOG.info("Property change: " + evt.getPropertyName() + "; Old value: " + evt.getOldValue() + ", New value: "
                + evt.getNewValue());

Note that a property change event identifies what property was changed, the old value, and the new value. If we were manually firing the event from a setter it would be pretty easy to collect this data; it'll be a little harder to do it in a dynamic way.

Method Interceptor

Now that we've got the stage set, we can get to the meat of the example. First, like the previous CGLib example, we need a method interceptor. This is the code that will be invoked whenever a method is called on our enhanced class. It will get information about the target of the call, the method being called, and its parameters. It will decide what action to take, including calling the regular, non-enhanced superclass method (if any).

The interceptor has a lot of pieces, so I'll describe it in stages. Here is the first part of the interceptor for this example:

import java.beans.PropertyChangeListener;
import java.beans.PropertyChangeSupport;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;

import net.sf.cglib.proxy.MethodInterceptor;
import net.sf.cglib.proxy.MethodProxy;

public class PropertyChangeInterceptor implements MethodInterceptor {

    private PropertyChangeSupport pcs;

    public void setTarget(Object target) {
        this.pcs = new PropertyChangeSupport(target);

    private void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if (null != pcs) {

    private void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if (null != pcs) {

    private void firePropertyChange(String propName, Object oldValue, Object newValue) {
        if (null != pcs) {
            pcs.firePropertyChange(propName, oldValue, newValue);

For starters, note that we are using PropertyChangeSupport to help us track listeners and fire events. The PropertyChangeSupport class expects to have a reference to the event source passed in when it is constructed. We want this event source to be our enhanced version of the bean, not the interceptor. So we have to treat it as a dependency and provide a setTarget() method so the interceptor can be told what object it is enhancing.

This is a minor flaw with this example, because it means we will need an interceptor instance per object we are enhancing. To get around it, we would have to forego the use of PropertyChangeSupport and roll our own listener logic. Not a big effort but not needed for this example.

Next, we provide a way to use reflection to look up and call the getter for a property using the name of the setter:

    private Object tryForGetter(String setterName, Object target) {
        String getterName = "get" + setterName.substring(3);
        try {
            return target.getClass().getMethod(getterName, new Class<?>[]{}).invoke(target, (Object[]) null);
        } catch (IllegalAccessException | IllegalArgumentException | InvocationTargetException | NoSuchMethodException
                | SecurityException e) {
            return null;

We will use this method to fetch the previous value for a property so we can include that in the PropertyChangeEvent. In the event the property has no getter, or something else goes wrong, we just return null. The event will be missing the old value, but otherwise everything will work fine. (As an aside, if I were writing this method for production purposes, I would probably use Apache BeanUtils, as it has a lot of nice methods for dealing with getters and setters via reflection.)

With these methods available to us, we can now write the important method, which is the one that actually handles the intercepted method calls. Note that all method calls will be routed through this intercept() method, so we have to handle both requests to add or remove listeners, as well as regular interactions with the bean.

    public Object intercept(Object target, Method method, Object[] args, MethodProxy proxy) throws Throwable {
        Object targetReturn = null;

        // See if this method call should stop here
        if (method.getName().equals("addPropertyChangeListener")) {
            Class<?>[] paramTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
            if (paramTypes.length == 1 && paramTypes[0].equals(PropertyChangeListener.class)) {
                addPropertyChangeListener((PropertyChangeListener) args[0]);
                return null;
        } else if (method.getName().equals("removePropertyChangeListener")) {
            Class<?>[] paramTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
            if (paramTypes.length == 1 && paramTypes[0].equals(PropertyChangeListener.class)) {
                removePropertyChangeListener((PropertyChangeListener) args[0]);
                return null;

        // Otherwise pass through to the real object
        Object oldValue = null;
        String name = method.getName();
        boolean isSetter = (name.startsWith("set") && args.length == 1 && method.getReturnType() == Void.TYPE);
        if (isSetter) {
            oldValue = tryForGetter(name, target);
        if (!Modifier.isAbstract(method.getModifiers())) {
            targetReturn = proxy.invokeSuper(target, args);
        if (isSetter) {
            String propName = Character.toLowerCase(name.charAt(3)) + name.substring(4);
            firePropertyChange(propName, oldValue, args[0]);
        return targetReturn;


Who says Java doesn't have duck typing? This looks a lot like a Ruby method_missing implementation.

If we recognize the method call as one to add or remove a listener, we fully intercept it and handle it here. Otherwise, we want to make sure we delegate it to the superclass we are enhancing (since the bean class might have other methods besides just setters).

If it is a setter method, we use the JavaBeans naming convention to figure out the name of the property. We then try to get the old value of the property before invoking the real setter, which will of course change the value. Once we tried to get the old value, we call the real setter, then we fire an event to anyone that might be listening. Note that by waiting until after we call the real setter, we avoid firing a change event where the setter throws an exception (e.g. due to validation), and we avoid a race condition where the event listener calls methods on the bean before its state has been fully updated.

Enhanced Class Factory

So now we have a way to enhance a class with both add / remove listener behavior, and with behavior that fires a property change event when a setter method is called. To wire this in so we can have enhanced beans, we need to work with CGLib's Enhancer. We want to be able to enhance any class written as a JavaBean, so what we really want is a factory that will hide the CGLib work from users and make enhanced instances of beans. Here is our factory class:

import net.sf.cglib.proxy.Enhancer;

public final class ObservableBeanFactory {

    public static <T> T createObservableBean(Class<T> beanClass) {
        PropertyChangeInterceptor interceptor = new PropertyChangeInterceptor();

        Enhancer e = new Enhancer();
        e.setInterfaces(new Class[] { Observable.class });

        T bean = (T) e.create();


        return bean;

The use of a generic static method just makes things a little cleaner for users so they have less casting to do. First, we make a new instance of our property change interceptor (since, as discussed above, we can't reuse it). Then we make an Enhancer instance. Note that, per the CGLib documentation, we should not try to reuse Enhancer instances. We set the superclass of the enhanced class to be whatever was passed in, then provide the interceptor that will handle method calls. Finally, we tell CGLib to create a bean that implements theObservable interface we made above. This way, it will appear to users that our bean class provides the addPropertyChangeListener andremovePropertyChangeListener methods. Of course, we do support those methods, because the interceptor looks for them by signature and handles them. Again, who says Java doesn't have duck typing?

Finally, we create an instance of the new enhanced bean class we just made, and pass it to the interceptor so its PropertyChangeSupport is set up correctly.

This is a simple factory that we could make almost arbitrarily complex. For example, while the CGLib Enhancer should not be reused, every enhanced class made with CGLib implements a Factory interface that can be used to make more instances. If we were to improve our interceptor so it can be reused with all bean instances, we could cache each enhanced bean class and reuse it if an instance is requested of a bean we've already seen before. This would be much better, because as-is this code has a potential issue with PermGen: it makes a new class for every bean instance, which would never go away. If we were to cache bean classes, we would probably have to deal with thread-safety issues to make sure we didn't have concurrent map modifications or two versions of the same enhanced bean class floating around.

Finishing Up the Example

In any case, now that we have our factory, we can use it to make enhanced beans. Here is the main method to illustrate how users would interact with the factory and our enhanced bean:

public class PropertyChangeExample {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        SampleBean regular = new SampleBean();
        SampleBean observableBean = ObservableBeanFactory.createObservableBean(SampleBean.class);

        ((Observable) observableBean).addPropertyChangeListener(new LoggingPropertyChangeListener());

        /* Will not be observed */

        /* Will be observed */


Note that there is nothing specific to CGLib in this example, and that the enhanced bean can be used just like the regular bean. However, the enhanced bean can also be cast to the Observable interface and a listener can be registered.

At runtime, the enhanced bean will have a class name like:


And observableBean.getClass().getSuperclass() will be SampleBean.class.


The ability to add "observable" behavior to any JavaBean strikes me more as a cool trick that illustrates CGLib than as something I would want to try in a production environment. We have added an extra step to every method call, and added Java reflection to every call to a setter (since we use reflection to call the getter to get the previous value). We could probably find some ways to make that performant, but it would be a rare use case where it would be worth the effort of building a thread-safe, performant version of this code and maintaining it.

However, it makes a great illustration of the kind of things CGLib does and why it is so valuable for framework code. For that reason, I like to use it when I teach Java EE and the Spring Framework. Most importantly, it helps get across the key point I want students to get when learning these frameworks, which is that there is no magic involved. Writing to a framework can be daunting when something goes wrong down in the internals and you are presented with a massive stack trace. Understanding what kinds of techniques are being used can help with learning what to ignore and what to pay attention to in those stack traces.

Microservices for Java, explained. Revitalize your legacy systems (and your career) with Reactive Microservices Architecture, a free O'Reilly book. Brought to you in partnership with Lightbend.

cglib,spring framework,java ee,code generation

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