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Measuring MySQL Performance in Kubernetes

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Measuring MySQL Performance in Kubernetes

Using Guaranteed QoS can provide a reasonable performance boost to MySQL applications deployed in Kubernetes.

· Performance Zone ·
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In my previous post, "Running MySQL/Percona Server in Kubernetes with a Custom Config" I looked at how to set up MySQL in Kubernetes to utilize system resources fully. Today I want to measure if there is any performance overhead of running MySQL in Kubernetes, and show what challenges I faced trying to measure it.

I will use a very simple CPU-bound benchmark to measure MySQL performance in OLTP read-only workload:

sysbench oltp_read_only --report-interval=1 --time=1800 --threads=56 --tables=10 --table-size=10000000 --mysql-user=sbtest --mysql-password=sbtest --mysql-socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock run


The hardware is as follows:

Supermicro server

  • Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2683 v3 @ 2.00GHz
  • 2 sockets / 28 cores / 56 threads
  • Memory: 256GB of RAM

The most interesting number there is 28 cores / 56 threads. Please keep this in mind; we will need this later.

So let's see the MySQL performance in the bare metal setup:

[ 607s ] thds: 56 tps: 22154.20 qps: 354451.12 (r/w/o: 310143.73/0.00/44307.39) lat (ms,95%): 2.61 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 608s ] thds: 56 tps: 22247.80 qps: 355955.88 (r/w/o: 311461.27/0.00/44494.61) lat (ms,95%): 2.61 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 609s ] thds: 56 tps: 21984.01 qps: 351641.13 (r/w/o: 307672.12/0.00/43969.02) lat (ms,95%): 2.66 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00


So we can get about 22000 qps on this server.

Now, let's see what we can get if the same server runs a Kubernetes node and we deploy the Percona server image on this node. I will use a modified image of Percona Server 8, which already includes sysbench inside.

You can find my image here.

And I use the following deployment yaml:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: mysql
spec:
  selector:
    app: mysql
  ports:
    - name: mysql
      port: 3306
      protocol: TCP
      targetPort: 3306
---
apiVersion: apps/v1 # for versions before 1.9.0 use apps/v1beta2
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: mysql
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: mysql
  strategy:
    type: Recreate
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: mysql
    spec:
      nodeSelector:
        kubernetes.io/hostname: smblade01
      volumes:
        - name: mysql-persistent-storage
          hostPath:
            path: /mnt/data/mysql
            type: Directory
        - name: config-volume
          configMap:
            name: mysql-config
            optional: true
      containers:
      - image: vadimtk/ps-8-vadim
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        name: mysql
        env:
          # Use secret in real usage
        - name: MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD
          value: password
        ports:
        - containerPort: 3306
          name: mysql
        volumeMounts:
        - name: mysql-persistent-storage
          mountPath: /var/lib/mysql
        - name: config-volume
          mountPath: /etc/my.cnf.d



The most important part here is that we deploy our image on smblade01 node (the same one I ran the bare metal benchmark).

Let's see what kind of performance we get using this setup. The number I've got:

[ 605s ] thds: 56 tps: 10561.88 qps: 169045.04 (r/w/o: 147921.29/0.00/21123.76) lat (ms,95%): 12.98 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 606s ] thds: 56 tps: 10552.00 qps: 168790.98 (r/w/o: 147685.98/0.00/21105.00) lat (ms,95%): 15.83 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 607s ] thds: 56 tps: 10566.00 qps: 169073.97 (r/w/o: 147942.97/0.00/21131.00) lat (ms,95%): 5.77 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 608s ] thds: 56 tps: 10581.08 qps: 169359.21 (r/w/o: 148195.06/0.00/21164.15) lat (ms,95%): 5.47 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 609s ] thds: 56 tps: 12873.80 qps: 205861.77 (r/w/o: 180116.17/0.00/25745.60) lat (ms,95%): 5.37 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 610s ] thds: 56 tps: 20196.89 qps: 323184.24 (r/w/o: 282789.46/0.00/40394.78) lat (ms,95%): 3.02 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 611s ] thds: 56 tps: 18033.21 qps: 288487.30 (r/w/o: 252421.88/0.00/36065.41) lat (ms,95%): 5.28 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 612s ] thds: 56 tps: 11444.08 qps: 183129.22 (r/w/o: 160241.06/0.00/22888.15) lat (ms,95%): 5.37 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 613s ] thds: 56 tps: 10597.96 qps: 169511.35 (r/w/o: 148316.43/0.00/21194.92) lat (ms,95%): 5.57 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 614s ] thds: 56 tps: 10566.00 qps: 169103.93 (r/w/o: 147969.94/0.00/21133.99) lat (ms,95%): 5.67 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 615s ] thds: 56 tps: 10640.07 qps: 170227.13 (r/w/o: 148948.99/0.00/21278.14) lat (ms,95%): 5.47 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 616s ] thds: 56 tps: 10579.04 qps: 169264.66 (r/w/o: 148106.58/0.00/21158.08) lat (ms,95%): 5.47 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00


You can see the numbers vary a lot, from 10550 tps to 20196 tps, with the most time being in the 10000tps range.
That's quite disappointing. Basically, we lost half of the throughput by moving to the Kubernetes node.

But don't panic, we can improve this. But first, we need to understand why this happens.

The answer lies in how Kubernetes applies Quality of Service for Pods. By default (if CPU or Memory limits are not defined), the QoS is BestEffort, which leads to the results we see above. To allocate all CPU resources, we need to make sure QoS Guaranteed. For this, we add the following to the image definition:

resources:
          requests:
            cpu: "55500m"
            memory: "150Gi"
          limits:
            cpu: "55500m"
            memory: "150Gi"


These are somewhat funny lines to define CPU limits. As you remember we have 56 threads, so initially I tried to set limits:cpu: "56"  but it did not work as Kubernetes was not able to start the pod with the error Insufficient CPU. I guess Kubernetes allocates a few CPU percentages for the internal needs.

So the line cpu: "55500m" works, which means we allocate 55.5 CPU for Percona Server.

Let's see what results we can have with Guaranteed QoS:

[ 883s ] thds: 56 tps: 20320.06 qps: 325145.96 (r/w/o: 284504.84/0.00/40641.12) lat (ms,95%): 2.81 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 884s ] thds: 56 tps: 20908.89 qps: 334587.21 (r/w/o: 292769.43/0.00/41817.78) lat (ms,95%): 2.81 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 885s ] thds: 56 tps: 20529.03 qps: 328459.46 (r/w/o: 287402.40/0.00/41057.06) lat (ms,95%): 2.81 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 886s ] thds: 56 tps: 17567.75 qps: 281051.03 (r/w/o: 245914.53/0.00/35136.50) lat (ms,95%): 5.47 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 887s ] thds: 56 tps: 18036.82 qps: 288509.07 (r/w/o: 252437.44/0.00/36071.63) lat (ms,95%): 5.47 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 888s ] thds: 56 tps: 18398.23 qps: 294399.67 (r/w/o: 257603.21/0.00/36796.46) lat (ms,95%): 5.47 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 889s ] thds: 56 tps: 18402.90 qps: 294484.45 (r/w/o: 257677.65/0.00/36806.81) lat (ms,95%): 5.47 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 890s ] thds: 56 tps: 19428.12 qps: 310787.86 (r/w/o: 271934.63/0.00/38853.23) lat (ms,95%): 5.37 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 891s ] thds: 56 tps: 19848.69 qps: 317646.11 (r/w/o: 277947.73/0.00/39698.39) lat (ms,95%): 5.28 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00
[ 892s ] thds: 56 tps: 20457.28 qps: 327333.49 (r/w/o: 286417.93/0.00/40915.56) lat (ms,95%): 2.86 err/s: 0.00 reconn/s: 0.00


This is much better (mostly ranging in 20000 tps), but we still do not get to 22000 tps.

I do not have the full explanation of why there is still a 10% performance loss, but it might be related to this issue. And I see there is a work in progress to improve Guaranteed QoS performance but it was not merged into the mainstream releases yet. Hopefully, it will be in one of the next releases.

Conclusions

  • Out of the box, you may see quite bad performance when deploying in Kubernetes Pods.
  • To improve your experience you need to make sure you use Guaranteed QoS. Unfortunately, Kubernetes does not make it easy. You need to manually set the number of CPU threads, which is not always obvious if you use dynamic cloud instances.
  • With Guaranteed QoS there is still a performance overhead of 10%, but I guess this is the cost we have to accept at the moment.
Topics:
performance ,mysql ,kubernetes ,deployment ,pods ,Guaranteed qos

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