Top 20 Git Commands With Examples
Learn and master these twenty essential Git commands for effective code management and collaboration with other developers.
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Git is a powerful tool that permits developers to work together on codebases, track changes, and roll back to previous versions if needed. It's an open-source, distributed version control system that's used by developers all over the world.
This article will cover the top 20 Git commands you need to know to work with Git effectively. Whether you're a fledgling or an accomplished engineer, these commands will help you get the most out of Git and improve your workflow.
What Is Git?
Git is a distributed version control system that allows developers to track changes to their codebase over time. It was developed by Linus Torvalds in 2005 and has since become one of the world's most widely used version control systems.
Git stores code changes in a repository, which is a collection of files and directories that make up a project. When changes are made to the codebase, Git tracks these changes and allows developers to revert to previous versions if needed.
Why Do Developers Use Git?
Developers use Git for several reasons. First, it allows them to track changes to their codebase over time, which is essential for collaborating on a project with other developers. Second, it allows developers to roll back to previous codebase versions if something goes wrong.
Finally, Git makes it easy to work on multiple features or bug fixes simultaneously by allowing developers to create branches, work on them independently, and merge them back into the main codebase when ready.
Basic Git Commands
Initializing a Git Repository
To start using Git, you first need to initialize a Git repository in your project directory. You can do this by running the following command in your terminal:
$ git init
Adding Files to the Staging Area
After you've initialized a Git repository, you can start tracking changes to your codebase by adding files to the staging area. You can do this by running the following command:
$ git add <filename>
Committing Changes to the Repository
Once you've added files to the staging area, you can commit them to the repository by running the following command:
$ git commit -m "Commit message."
Viewing the Git Log
To view the Git log, which contains information about previous commits, run the following command:
$ git log
To create a new branch, which is a separate line of development that allows you to work on features or bug fixes independently of the main codebase, run the following command:
$ git branch <branch-name>
Switching Between Branches
To switch between branches, run the following command:
$ git checkout <branch-name>
To merge a branch into the main codebase, run the following command:
$ git merge <branch-name> Intermediate Git commands
Cloning a Repository
To clone a repository, which means to make a copy of a remote repository on your local machine, run the following command:
$ git clone <repository-url>
Pushing Changes to a Remote Repository
To push changes to a remote repository, which means to upload changes you've made locally to a repository hosted on a remote server, run the following command:
$ git push
Pulling Changes From a Remote Repository
To pull changes from a remote repository, which means downloading changes made by other developers and merging them into your local repository, run the following command:
$ git pull
Resolving Merge Conflicts
When you merge branches, you may encounter merge conflicts, which occur when Git is unable to automatically merge changes made to the same file by different developers. To resolve merge conflicts, you'll need to manually edit the conflicting files and resolve the conflicts. You can do this using a text editor or a merge tool.
Rebasing is a way to integrate changes from one branch into another by moving the entire branch to a new base commit. This allows you to keep your commit history linear and avoid unnecessary merge commits. To rebase a branch, run the following command:
$ git rebase <branch-name>
If you're working on a feature or bug fix and need to switch to another branch before you're finished, you can stash your changes so that you can come back to them later. To stash changes, run the following command:
$ git stash
Advanced Git Commands
Checking Out Previous Commits
To check out a previous commit, which means going back to a previous version of your codebase, run the following command:
$ git checkout <commit-hash>
If you need to change a previous commit, you can amend the commit instead of creating a new one. To amend a commit, run the following command:
$ git commit --amend
Cherry-picking is a way to apply a specific commit from one branch to another. To cherry-pick a commit, run the following command:
$ git cherry-pick <commit-hash>
Git bisect is a way to find the commit that introduced a bug by performing a binary search through the commit history. To use Git bisect, run the following command:
$ git bisect start $ Git bisects bad $ git bisect good <commit-hash>
Git blame is a way to see who changed a specific file and when. To use Git blame, run the following command:
$ git blame <filename>
Git tags are a way to mark a specific commit as a milestone, such as a release. To create a tag, run the following command:
$ git tag <tag-name> <commit-hash>
Click here for a video of useful Git commands for developers.
This article covers the top most commonly used Git commands, ranging from basic to advanced. By mastering these commands, you can navigate Git repositories, collaborate with other developers, and manage your codebase effectively.
Remember that Git is a powerful tool, and while these commands are essential to working with Git, many more commands and options are available.
So keep learning, experimenting, and exploring the vast capabilities of Git.
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