Selenium Test Automation— Critical Things to Avoid When Writing Test Scripts
The demand for automation testing tools like Selenium has increased dramatically, and Selenium is the most widely used to test web applications.
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Automation testing plays a significant role in overcoming the shortcomings or drawbacks of manual tests, plus broadening the scope for extra layered testing. Current studies have forecasted that the progress of the Global Test Automation market to hit USD 109.69 billion by the year 2025, which means that QA testing is growing and evolving rapidly. The influence of Selenium Testing is such that it has become a game-changer in the Quality Assurance and Software Testing world. Automated test has become more demanding as the high level of accuracy that is accomplished is saving loads of time for the testing team as well. Besides, automated testing empowers enterprises or businesses by boosting their software quality and making the entire tests process more reliable, faster, and resource-efficient.
Selenium is one of the top lists in the testing arena because of its plentiful advantages. It has contributed to loads in bringing this exponential transformation in the testing world and continuous development and delivery procedure. Testing automation with Selenium has quite become popular with ongoing developments in Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. It has initiated noteworthy transformations by opening up numerous unprecedented avenues in test automation.
Selenium Test Automation
Selenium is one of the most preferred and portable open-source web app testing frameworks. This test automation framework utilizes a default testing domain language called “Selenese” to write test scripts. Selenium provides a single interface that enables you to write test scripts in diverse programming languages such as NodeJS, Ruby, PHP, Java, Perl, Python, & C#, among others. It comprises a varied stack of software automated test tools, all having diverse functionality that is app or project-specific. To versatile, the test system selenium has integrated various projects.
Selenium Components Are as Follows
• Se Webdriver
Se Webdriver is also called selenium 2.0, WebDriver executes testing scripts via browser-centric drivers. It consists of Library, API, and Framework. Selenium test uses Webdriver, which runs the app on distinct browsers, just like a user, whether it is on a remote or local machine. Webdriver testing the app on all key browsers such as Safari, Firefox, Edge, Internet Explorer, Chrome, and many more.
• Selenium IDE
Selenium Integrated Development Environment makes it simple to record & playback testing in the browser. It lets testers for easy cross-browser testing and debugging. This element of Selenium is a Firefox and Chrome plugin that can log ‘natural’ connections in the browser and build its code in distinct programming languages like Java, C#, Ruby, and Python, as well as Selenese (its own script language).
• Selenium Grid
Selenium Grid can reduce testing runtime—by performing varied test scripts on any number of remote devices straight away. It is known as parallel tests. The Grid is a smart server that routes commands in QA tests to browser instances on remote gadgets. The two essential elements required for this (besides testing script from tester/ client-side) are Node and Hub.
Browsers as Well as Platforms Supported by Selenium
As mentioned in the Selenium official sources guide, here is the list of the platforms and browsers supported by Selenium:
- Google Chrome
- IE 7, 8, 9, 10, & 11 on proper incorporations of Windows 8, Windows 7, Vista, and Windows 8.1. Internet Explorer 6 is no longer supported. The webdriver supports running the browser’s 64-bit & 32-bit versions where applicable.
- iOS (with appium or ios-driver)
- Android (with appium or Selendroid)
Some of the Key Trends for Selenium Test Automation in 2022
1. AI Integration
AI is rapidly becoming a key part of the software development procedure. So, it is significant for QA teams to incorporate Artificial Intelligence into their QA test procedures. The great thing about selenium online training is that it will commence you to the art to apply Machine Learning or Artificial Intelligence strategies to address software test challenges. The continuous progressions in Artificial Intelligence technology have made this a key trend. Enterprises are now determined to find better methods and ways to optimize Artificial Intelligence integration into their QA test practices. This trend will aid generate better test cases, test scripts, as well as test reports. Hence, the integration of Artificial Intelligence for Selenium is expected to turn bigger for years to come.
2. Selenium 4 Adoption
Sophisticated digital technology is impacting Quality Assurance practices across diverse enterprises. This consecutively has pushed automation testing to a whole newest level. As the Selenium 4 framework was launched, the automated browser’s testing has received huge improvements. It has been estimated that Selenium 4 will soon be at the center phase of automation testing. Therefore, framework adoption is a major trend for selenium in 2022.
Based on studies, here are some of the better features:
• Better formatted commands within the test framework.
• Improved UI and improved configuration settings.
• Ability to carry out test cases in parallel on various browsers.
• Enhanced, detailed documentation for automation testing engineers.
• Support of native chromium driver and relative locators for browsers.
You should bear in mind that the Selenium 4’s Alpha version is still in the test phase. However, this trend will change the way automation testing enthusiasts practice test automation in the year 2022.
3. Cyber Security Solution
The advancement and digital revolution in the globe today come with a variety of security threats. This is why a plethora of companies have detected the requirement for a cyber security solution. This solution can be accomplished through selenium test automation of system networks and software apps. Good knowledge of test automation and selenium expertise acquisition will allow trained experts to provide software products that are resonant with risks. This is why cyber security resolution has to turned out to be a great Selenium trend. As the requirement for cyber security solutions continues to rise, the demand for experts with selenium online training will persistently grow. It will aid software development teams in enterprises to concentrate on using selenium test automation to avoid cyber security attacks.
4. DevOps and Agile Practice
There is a speedy transformation in the need for product delivery and the great demand for speed in the software development procedure. Due to these alterations, the majority of big enterprises have employed the usage of DevOps & Agileto provide efficient software test solutions. This is the most recent trend, particularly for companies that deploy selenium test automation practices. The requirement for selenium online training can’t be overemphasized as it aids with DevOps and Agile practices. As a result, ensure you register for a selenium course online nowadays.
The practice of DevOps and Agile is integrated for selenium to lessen the time between software operational and development lifecycle activities. This has to turn into a broadly accepted solution as it assists software development teams to design & deliver software products way sooner without obstructing the quality. This is one of the best trends that will continue to step up for years to come.
5. Big Data Tests
Big Data Test is the top-most trend for selenium test automation in the year 2022. Enterprisers and companies across distinct fields are constantly dealing with an enormous amount of data volumes. So, Big Data requires efficient testing if enterprises are to make good decisions with precise data. This trend also assists with market strategizing and targeting. As a result, this trend is proposed to be widely accepted by more organizations around the globe.
Some Critical Things to Avoid While Writing Test Scripts
As Selenium is a highly accepted and used automated test framework in existence, it is secure to assume that the majority of folks running automated testing are utilizing it. The basis of every Selenium test is the testing script. Without a perfectly-written test script, Selenium tests are bound to be ineffective and flaky, if not outright not possible to run. The faultily written test script generates extra work for testers and developers instead of making their lives simpler.
Let’s discuss some of the critical things to avoid when crafting Selenium test scripts:
• Large Test Cases with Manifold Chained Assertions: Really helpful Selenium scripts are simple and reusable to maintain. This is quite tough to do if someone is scripting large test cases that cover immense portions of the app under test at one go. The huge a test, the tougher it is to detect bugs. Apparently, scanning via thousands of test code lines to discover what went incorrect will always pose an enormous challenge. This is addressed by executing comprehensive unit testing and relying on Page Object Patterns to control code duplication.
• Inaccurate use of Sleeps and Waits: Explicit and Implicit Waits are more often used in automated Selenium tests to wait for a fixed duration before implementing a command. When used accurately, they are separately handled for testing active content, identifying web components to interact with, and tests functionalities. But, if QA experts mix Explicit and Implicit Waits, it leads to irregular timeout or waits times. This results in uneven behavior within testing. In the same way, too much use of thread Sleeps results in testing failure, and they require to be sensibly used. It is better to attain a comprehensive understanding of Selenium Wait for commands prior to creating any Selenium scripts.
• Bad Validation Practices: QA Testers generally make use of testing scripts with validation to make certain if functionality (a login page, for instance) is behaving as projected. Without validating such components, the testing script loses its purpose. A similar thing applies even when one is validating visual components for checking only if the surface-level User Interface is functioning. Visualize what happens if a user tries to put an order yet can’t as the tester did not enquire the database.
• Automating the Incorrect Tests: Nothing is bad for a Selenium testing script than being written for the incorrect tests. If automated testing is shaped for areas that need manual tests, QA testers have to remain fix automation code rather than looking for actual bugs in the software. If someone automates the tests of new traits or has an unstable User Interface, you can expect a great waste of effort as well as time. Scripts should be written for accurate tests. Selenium testing scripts are better generated and used for automating user functions or procedures that are recurring. For instance, if a form requires to be tested by entering 500 distinct values, then it is a state perfect for automation. Likewise, each time a fresh code is added to the codebase, regression testing should be executed to make certain that adding the newest code does not malign the efficiency of the app’s present features. Yet again, testing necessitates automation.
Any Selenium script generated for automating everything will fail. Execute risk analysis of diverse components of the software, perform research on where automation will give extra outcomes, and then begin shaping scripts accordingly.
• Inadequate Testing Reporting: Without adequate reporting as well as documentation, Selenium testing is bound to fail. Imagine that an error has been detected. With no documentation, the QA expert will not be able to detect the source of the error or which software developer generated the code in which the bug/ error manifested. Accordingly, they do not understand who should scrutinize the bug or even what the intention of the code is. One label and names must test so that they are simple to direct for the team. Besides, mechanisms should be laid in place to aid easy communication amongst team members so that any irregularities can be instantly reported to the relevant personnel. Sharing the bud screenshots is also a better practice. Incorporating such practices will reorganize the testing script, allowing it to give optimal outcomes.
• Testing on a Sole Browser: Cross-browser test is imperative to the failure or success of any app or site. Perform the research, hunt market analytics, and generate a list of browser-gadget-Operating System combo that the target audience is ready to access the software from. It is a simple to use tool like Selenium for cross-browser tests. Use parallel tests for testing on various browsers, as well as boost outcomes. With growing competition in the digital marketplace, customers will not vacillate to uninstall an application or leave a site (& never return) at the primary sign of an error or bug.
In case QA specialists don’t have an in-house device lab, they can resort to cloud-based test solutions that offer real browsers to test on. This allows QA experts to scrutinize, examine and confirm software behavior in an accurate environ where potential customers or users will function in it.
To generate result-centric, productive, and sophisticated Selenium scripts, you should know what is true concerning Se command scripts. Combine the best practices with a cautious eye on the most universal reasons for script failure. It allows the formation of test cases that do accurately what they are liable to with lesser effort for the software developer.
What Is the Influence of Selenium Automated Test on QA Testing?
The software test market is ever-progressing, and so is QA testing. QA specialists across the globe know and manually express the challenges of testing software which led to the Test Automation introduction. Automated test has revolutionized the method QA test is performed. The free or open-source tools of the test would have given the specialists extra freedom to innovate and bring the finest out of the test’s skill. The concepts of Continuous Integration/Contagious Development and Agile have contributed to this advancement.
Selenium test has modified the face of automated tests for many QA testers or software developers’ teams around the world. What the Selenium Test framework chiefly does is – test the web apps and validate if it qualifies to get to the production environment and shift to the market-ready phase.
Traits of Selenium Testing
It is one of the cost-effective QA test techniques that trim downloads of testing costs. It is also why the majority of beginners wish to begin their journey with Selenium.
Ease of Selenium Access
As it is one of the free or open-source tools, anyone can download it at zero cost. Any enterprise, from small start-ups to big giants, has an open admittance to the tool anywhere and anytime.
Multilingual Support and Cross-Browser Compatibility
One of the best features of the Selenium Test is that it lets the interchanging of programming languages whenever required. The Application Programming Language can be chosen based on the language, preferably Pearl, Python, Ruby, PHP, Java,.Net, and C#. It is extremely attuned and compatible with almost every browser like Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, and Opera. Selenium can efficiently test the apps amid web browsers to scrutinize the cross-browser compatibility of the web applications. Software developers enjoy this trait the most as it allows them to develop the code merely once before cross-browser tests.
Record and Playback Feature
Selenium Integrated Development Environment enables debugging, recording, and modifying or editing the tests. IDE also records the activities to be tested. It saves the recorded testing cases automatically, which lets retrieving tests for further use an effortless procedure.
Frameworks and Integration
Selenium effortlessly integrates with several test frameworks. Here are a few examples of unit tests frameworks it incorporates well:
- NUnit -C# based
- TestNG JUnit, JAVA-based
- PyTest, UnitTest, Robot, PyUnit Python-based
- PHPUnit is based on PHP
- RSpec and Test::Unit – based on Ruby
Selenium has a robust ever-growing platform or community, which is also an authorized customer group. You can search for any sort of solution to all your test glitches, tooltips, etc., here. The community also promotes superior-quality information documents to make the most of the test automation tool. The web community gives adequate resources and information that you require not to be concerned about extra training to understand the trouble.
TDD (Test-Driven Development)
Another beneficial trait feature of the Selenium test is that it can expand to intricate tests such as load tests and production monitoring. Code flexibility, as well as relief to update the code, is what the QA team takes pleasure in the most. Test-Driven Development eases the developer’s efforts as the necessity to write the fresh code only arises when there is unsuccessful test automation.
Drawbacks of Selenium Automated Tests
In today’s era, free tools like Selenium might be the best test automation tool accessible today. Yet, every famous tool has its series of pros and cons. Let’s observe some of these limitations.
- Selenium migration threats persist. If handled perfectly, it guarantees good performance.
- Selenium is a great choice for web-based applications; however, it does not support mobile and desktop applications.
- Undoubtedly, it provides cross-browser support, but the scripts to work on multiple browsers have to be written using Selenium IDE for using them with RC else; the scripts only support Mozilla Firefox.
- It doesn’t support DDT (Data-driven testing) with manual scripts that have loops and conditions.
- Selenium is not equipped with in-built reporting plus relies mainly on 3rd party reporting systems.
- It does have the community back up however does not have a full-fledged or complete tech support team mitigating your glitches. It has partial assistance for image comparison.
- Selenium test environment setup is tricky as it requires configuring various plugins & tools manually to support test automation.
- As Selenium is a free tool, nobody is accountable for any morbidity in the newest traits.
Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and Selenium Testing
The biggest trend in the automation arena that is accountable for shaping automation testing’s upcoming future is the development of Machine learning and AI. Even though it is still in the inception stage, once it is established, it will alter the automation testing game. Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence-based automation can’t function separately without any human intervention and intelligence; both need each other. Besides, as complete 100 percent automation is impossible, complete 100% Machine learning and AI-based automation test is also impossible. Few automation test platforms are already using Artificial Intelligence in some areas, such as:
- Test Maintenance: to discover alterations and upgrade the testing flow.
- To give test suggestions to QA experts after a duplicate or failed test.
- To generate self-healing Selenium testing code.
Yet, there is a long way to go! Machine learning and Artificial Intelligence based automation testing look better than Selenium, except the latter integrates the previous and evolves with time to change the software test future. There may be cases where enterprises necessitate both for better reasons, and both co-exist. However, no one knows what the future holds for us, yet the landscape surely looks exciting and promising.
Hence, what is the future of Selenium testing? Even though Software testing is a developing space, specialists around the globe still encounter lots of challenges. To defeat such challenges, the stakeholders look for capable automated testing tools that suit their requirements. Most of them look for lucrative automated tools that proffer the greatest benefits. It is an enormous task to choose the correct automation tool since sometimes, even the top tool might not suit your company’s requirements. Rather than any one-time decision, it is more of a strategic decision. Selenium fits better in this type of situation. Moreover, to a list of benefits, traits like being cost-effective and open-source have created an extraordinary place amongst the QA experts because of the accessibility that it provides.
Selenium test guarantees that the quality of the app is maintained and that merely the better version goes out in the marketplace. Other series of rewards like speed and compatibility are attracting many global enterprises to shift to Selenium in the better interest of their company. In short, Artificial Intelligence and ML, if integrated with Selenium, will bring noteworthy perfection to the present automation scenario. Artificial Intelligence and ML integration in the existing Selenium Automation will influence the Selenium test for improvement resulting in a progressive future for the Software Arena.
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