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Understanding @Output and EventEmitter in Angular

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Understanding @Output and EventEmitter in Angular

Angular is based on a one-directional data flow and does not have two-way data binding. So, how do you get a component to emit an event to another component?

· Web Dev Zone ·
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In Angular, a component can emit an event using @Output and EventEmitter. Both are parts of the @angular/core.

Confused by the jargon? Let's simplify it together. Consider the AppChildComponent as shown below:

appchild.component.ts

import { Component, Input, EventEmitter, Output } from '@angular/core';

@Component({
    selector: 'app-child',
    template: `<button class='btn btn-primary' (click)="handleclick()">Click me</button> `
})
export class AppChildComponent {

    handleclick() {

        console.log('hey I am  clicked in child');
    }
}

There's a button in the AppChildComponent template which is calling the function handleclick. Let's use the app-child component inside the App Compontent as shown below: 

appcomponent.ts

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
@Component({
    selector: 'app-root',
    template: `<app-child></app-child>`
})
export class AppComponent implements OnInit {

    ngOnInit() {

    }
}

Here we're using AppChildCopmponent inside AppComponent, thereby creating a parent/child kind of relationship, in which AppComponent is the parent and AppChildComponent is the child. When we run the application with a button click, you'll see this message in the browser console:

So far, it's very simple to use event binding to get the button to call the function in the component. Now, let's tweak the requirement a bit. What if you want to execute a function of AppComponent on the click event of a button inside AppChildComponent?

To do this, you will have to emit the button click event from AppChildComponent. Import EventEmitter and Output from @angular/core.

Here we are going to emit an event and pass a parameter to the event. Consider the code below:

appchild.component.ts

import { Component, EventEmitter, Output } from '@angular/core';

@Component({
    selector: 'app-child',
    template: `<button class='btn btn-primary' (click)="valueChanged()">Click me</button> `
})
export class AppChildComponent {

    @Output() valueChange = new EventEmitter();
    Counter = 0;

    valueChanged() { // You can give any function name

        this.counter = this.counter + 1;
        this.valueChange.emit(this.counter);
    }
}

Right now, we are performing the following tasks in the AppChildComponent class:

  1. Creating a variable called counter, which will be passed as the parameter of the emitted event.
  2. Creating an EventEmitter, valueChange, which will be emitted to the parent component on the click event of the button.
  3. Creating a function named valueChanged(). This function is called on the click event of the button, and inside the function event valueChange is emitted.
  4. While emitting the valueChange event, the value of the counter is passed as a parameter.

In the parent component, AppComponent, the child component, AppChildComponent, can be used as shown in the code below:

appcomponent.ts

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
@Component({
    selector: 'app-root',
    template: `<app-child (valueChange)='displayCounter($event)'></app-child>`
})
export class AppComponent implements OnInit {
    ngOnInit() {

    }
    displayCounter(count) {
        console.log(count);
    }
}

Right now, we are performing the following tasks in the AppComponent class:

  1. Using <app-child> in the template.
  2. In the <app-child> element, using event binding to use the valueChange event.
  3. Calling the displayCounter function on the valueChange event.
  4. In the displayCounter function, printing the value of the counter passed from the AppChildComponent.

As you can see, the function AppComponent is called on the click event of the button placed on the AppChildComponent. This is can be done with @Output and EventEmitter. When you run the application and click the button, you can see the value of the counter in the browser console. Each time you click on the button, the counter value is increased by 1.

A Real-Time Example

Let's take a real-time example to find out how @Output and EventEmitter can be more useful. Consider that AppComponent is rendering a list of products in a tabular form as shown in the image below:

To create the product table above, we have a very simple AppComponent class with only one function: to return a list of products.

export class AppComponent implements OnInit {
    products = [];
    title = 'Products';
    ngOnInit() {
        this.products = this.getProducts();
    }
    getProducts() {
        return [
            { 'id': '1', 'title': 'Screw Driver', 'price': 400, 'stock': 11 },
            { 'id': '2', 'title': 'Nut Volt', 'price': 200, 'stock': 5 },
            { 'id': '3', 'title': 'Resistor', 'price': 78, 'stock': 45 },
            { 'id': '4', 'title': 'Tractor', 'price': 20000, 'stock': 1 },
            { 'id': '5', 'title': 'Roller', 'price': 62, 'stock': 15 },
        ];
    }
}

In the ngOnInit lifecycle hook, we are calling the getPrdoducts() function and assigning the returned data to the products variable so it can be used in the template. There, we are using the *ngFor directive to iterate through the array and display the products. See the code below:

<div class="container">
    <br />
    <h1 class="text-center">{{title}}</h1>
    <table class="table">
        <thead>
        <th>Id</th>
        <th>Title</th>
        <th>Price</th>
        <th>Stock</th>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            <tr *ngFor="let p of products">
                <td>{{p.id}}</td>
                <td>{{p.title}}</td>
                <td>{{p.price}}</td>
                <td>{{p.stock}}</td>
            </tr>
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>

With this code, products are rendered in a table as shown in the image below:

Now let's say we want to add a new column with a button and input box as shown in the image below:

Our requirements are as follows:

  1. If the value of stock is more than 10 then the button color should be green.
  2. If the value of stock is less than 10 then the button color should be red.
  3. The user can enter a number in the input box, which will be added to that particular stock value.
  4. The color of the button should be updated on the basis of the changed value of the product stock.

To achieve this, let us create a new child component called StockStatusComponent. Essentially, in the template of StockStatusCompontent, there is one button and one numeric input box. In StockStatusCompontent

  1. We need to read the value of stock passed from AppComponnet. For this, we need to use @Input
  2. We need to emit an event so that a function in AppComponent can be called on the click of the StockStatusComponent For this, we need to use @Output and EventEmitter.

Consider the code below:

stockstatus.component.ts

import { Component, Input, EventEmitter, Output, OnChanges } from '@angular/core';
@Component({
    selector: 'app-stock-status',
    template: `<input type='number' [(ngModel)]='updatedstockvalue'/> <button class='btn btn-primary'
     [style.background]='color'
     (click)="stockValueChanged()">Change Stock Value</button> `
})
export class StockStatusComponent implements OnChanges {

    @Input() stock: number;
    @Input() productId: number;
    @Output() stockValueChange = new EventEmitter();
    color = '';
    updatedstockvalue: number;
    stockValueChanged() {
        this.stockValueChange.emit({ id: this.productId, updatdstockvalue: this.updatedstockvalue });
        this.updatedstockvalue = null;
    }
    ngOnChanges() {

        if (this.stock > 10) {
            this.color = 'green';
        } else {
            this.color = 'red';
        }
    }
}

Let's explore the above class line by line.

  1. In the first line, we are importing everything that's required: @Input, @Output, etc.
  2. In the template, there is one numeric input box which is bound to the updatedStockValue property using [(ngModel)]. We need to pass this value with an event to the AppComponent.
  3. In the template, there is one button. On the click event of the button, an event is emitted to the AppComponent.
  4. We need to set the color of the button on the basis of the value of product stock. So, we must use property binding to set the background of the button. The value of the color property is updated in the class.
  5. We are creating two @Input() decorated properties - stock and productId - because the value of these two properties will be passed from AppComponent.
  6. We are creating an event called stockValueChange. This event will be emitted to AppComponent on the click of the button.
  7. In the stockValueChanged function, we are emitting the stockValueChange event and also passing the product id to be updated and the value to be added to the product stock value.
  8. We are updating the value of the color property in the ngOnChanges() lifecycle hook because each time the stock value gets updated in the AppComponent, the value of the color property should be updated.

Here we are using the @Input decorator to read data from AppComponent class, which happens to be the parent class in this case. So to pass data from the parent component class to the child component class, use the @Input decorator.

In addition, we are using @Output with EventEmitter to emit an event to AppComponent. So to emit an event from the child component class to the parent component class, use EventEmitter with the @Output() decorator.

Therefore, StockStatusComponent is using both @Input and @Output to read data from AppComponent and emit an event to AppComponent

Modify AppComponent to Use StockStatusComponent

Let us first modify the template. In the template, add a new table column. Inside the column, the <app-stock-status> component is used.

<div class="container">
    <br />
    <h1 class="text-center">{{title}}</h1>
    <table class="table">
        <thead>
        <th>Id</th>
        <th>Title</th>
        <th>Price</th>
        <th>Stock</th>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            <tr *ngFor="let p of products">
                <td>{{p.id}}</td>
                <td>{{p.title}}</td>
                <td>{{p.price}}</td>
                <td>{{p.stock}}</td>
                <td><app-stock-status [productId]='p.id' [stock]='p.stock' (stockValueChange)='changeStockValue($event)'></app-stock-status></td>
            </tr>
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>

We are passing the value to productId and stock using property binding (remember, these two properties are decorated with @Input() in StockStatusComponent) and using event binding to handle the stockValueChange event (remember, this event is decorated with @Output() in StockStatusComponent).

productToUpdate: any;
changeStockValue(p) {
    this.productToUpdate = this.products.find(this.findProducts, [p.id]);
    this.productToUpdate.stock = this.productToUpdate.stock + p.updatdstockvalue;
}
findProducts(p) {
    return p.id === this[0];
}

In the function, we are using the JavaScript Array.prototype.find method to find a product with a matched productId and then updating the stock count of the matched product. When you run the application, you'll get the following output:

When you enter a number in the numeric box and click on the button, you perform a task in the child component that updates the operation value in the parent component. Also, on the basis of the parent component value, the style is being changed in the child component. All this is possible using Angular @Input, @Output, and EventEmitter.

In summary:

Stay tuned for future articles where we go into more depth on other features of Angular!

Take a look at the Indigo.Design sample applications to learn more about how apps are created with design to code software.

Topics:
angular ,web dev ,web application development ,typescript

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